Memory

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  • Created by: EliseCeri
  • Created on: 09-11-15 14:42
Who studied the Multi-Store model?
Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968, 1971)
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What are the three stores in the MSM?
sensory, STM, LTM
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How can you lose information in the STM?
Decay, displacement
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How can you lose information in the LTM?
decay, interference, retrievial failure
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what transferes the information from the sensory memory to the STM?
Attention
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what transferes the information from the STM to the LTM?
Rehearsal
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What does Coding mean?
The format in which information is stored in various memory stores
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What does capacity mean?
The amount of information that can be held in a memory store
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What does duration mean?
The Length of time information can be stored in the memory.
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What is the capacity of the sensory register?
Large/broad
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What is the duration of the sensory register?
A fraction of a second
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What is the coding of the sensory register?
Echoic and iconic
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What does Echoic memory mean?
Stored acoustically
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What does Iconic memory mean?
Stored Visually
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What is the capacity of the STM?
7 plus or minus 2
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Who did a study into the capacity of the STM?
Jacobs(1887) - digit span
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What is the duration of the STM?
20 seconds max
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who did a study into the duration of the STM?
Peterson and Peterson (1959) - trigram recall at up to 18 seconds gap
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How is the information coded in the STM?
Accoustically
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Who did a study into the Coding of the STM?
Baddely (1966a,b) - acoustically similar and disimilar words
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What is the capacity of the LTM?
Unlimited
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What is the duration of the LTM?
A lifetime
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Who did a study into the duration of the LTM?
Bahrick (1975)
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How is the LTM coded?
semantically
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Who did a study into the coding of the LTM?
Baddeley (1966a,b)
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Who was the psychologist that realised there were different types of LTM?
Endel Tulving (1985)
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What are the three types of LTM according to Endel Tulving?
Episodic, semantic, procedural
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What are the features of the episodic memory?
Episodes, conscious, Time stamped
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What are the features of the Semantic memory?
facts, meanings, conscious, not time-stamped
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What are the features of the Procedural memory?
Skills, actions, unconscious, not time-stamped
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Which memory store is the WMM for?
STM
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What are the systems that work for the central called in WMM?
Slave systems
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what are the 4 systems in the WMM?
Central executive, phonological loop, visio-spatial sketchpad and episodic buffer
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What does the central executive do?
Controls attention, monitors information and allocates slave systems
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What is the capacity of the central executive?
Limited
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What does the phonological loop do?
It stores auditory information briefly
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What can the phonological loop be divided into?
Phonological store- inner ear and articulatory control- inner voice
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What does the visio-spatial sketchpad do?
hols visual/spatio info briefly
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What can the VSS be divided into?
inner cache- visual and inner scribe- spatial
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Name two explanations for forgetting?
Interference and retrieval failure
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What is interference?
When two pieces of information conflict with each other resulting in forgetting
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What are the two types of interference?
Retroactive and Proactive
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What is Retroactive interference?
When new memories affect old ones
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What is Proactive interference?
When old memories affect new ones.
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Who did a study into the similarity of memories?
McGeoch and McDonald (1931)
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What is retrieval failure?
occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access the memory
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What is a cue?
A 'trigger' that allows us to access a memory
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What types of cue's are there?
meaning dependent, state-dependent and context-dependent
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what is a meaning dependent cue?
one that has semantic meaning. Ex. Food groups
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What is a state dependent cue?
one that relies on the internal emotional or physical state
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what is a context dependent cue?
Anything external. the environment!
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the three stores in the MSM?

Back

sensory, STM, LTM

Card 3

Front

How can you lose information in the STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can you lose information in the LTM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what transferes the information from the sensory memory to the STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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