The Experiment in Constitutional Monarchy, 1789-1792

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  • Created by: HazelF97
  • Created on: 13-06-17 16:07
Who dominated the First Estates Estate Generals?
Parish priests. 303
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What did the First Estate want?
wanted higher stipends, access to higher church offices, a greater church control over education and limit to tolerance of protestants
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Who made up the Second Estates Estate Generals?
282 nobles with conservative views
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What were the Second Estates views?
1/3 were willing to give up their financial privileges. Divided over the third estates demand for tax reform and a modern constitution
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Who made up the Third Estates Estate Generals?
578- bourgeoise. A few higher estates representing them. Electoral system excluded peasants
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What did all three estates want?
A monarchy whose powers were limited by an elected assembly which had the power to raise taxes and decide on the law.
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When and where did the Estates General meet?
5th May at Versailles.
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When was the National Assembly declared?
17th June 1789
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Why was the National Assembly Called?
The three estates were to meet separately to discuss the issues.The third estate argued that deputies needed to have their election credentials verified in a common session. This would set the framework for voting by head rather than estate.
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What were the votes?
For: Aganist. Second= 46:188 First= 114:133
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Why was there deadlock for several months
The third estate refused to do anything until the others joined them. Louis was inactive.
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What happened on the 10th June?
The Third estate bega verifying the election credentials of the clergy and nobles. A few clergy joined them.
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What happened on the 17th June?
The Third estate voted 490:90 to call them selves the National Assembly. They claimed to have the right to represent the French nation and decide on taxation. It was a direct challenge to the king. Two days later the clergy voted to join them.
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What happened when Louis called a seance royale?
The 3rdE arrived to find the doors of the hall locked to them. Angry at wahat they saw as a despotic act they moved the meeting to the Tenis Court.
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What was the Tennis Court Oath?
An oath sworn by the 3rdE not to disband until a new french constitution had been agreed upon.
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What happened during the seance royale?
Louis declared the reforms of the NA unacceptable and therefore void. The deputies were ordered to return to their seperate rooms, they refused. More clergy and nobles joined the Third Estate
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When did Louis declare the National Assembly?
27 June, he ordered the remaining people to join the 830
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What did Louis do in the last week of June?
Moved troops into the PAris/Versailles area. He was planning to dissolve the NA by force.
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What happened on the 11th July?
20,000 troops were in the area. Louis felt strong enough to dismiss Necker- Louis did not want to implement his reforms.
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What happened on the 12th July?
Neckers dismissal reached Paris and inflamed tense situatins. High food prices had already led to rioting- Necker was seen to resolve the crisis.
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Armed revolt was riggered by Camille Desmoulins- claimed that a massacre of the supporters of reform was planned. People armed themselves.
Result was violent clashes with Royal troops and the hated custom posts around the city were attacked. The Gardes-francaises were ordered to withdraw from Paris, many disobeyed and joined the people. Paris electors set up a citizen's milita to mainta
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What happened on the 13th July?
Baricades were erected to stop any royal troops from entering Paris. In Versailles, the National Assembly called for the removal of all troops.
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What happened on the 14th July?
Parisians seized muskets and cannons from the arsenal and went to the Bastille for gunpowder and ammunition.
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What did the Bastille Symbolise?
royal power- royal fortress
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The officers could not rely on their men to open fire on the crowds. Moor troops were called from across the river Seine. The governor, De Launay had refused to hand over any gunpowder.
A group reached the inner courtyard and the governor ordered an open fire. 93 were killed. Canon fire was used to storm the prison. De Launay was murdered.
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Who stormed the Bastille?
the sans-culottes. Roughly 250,000 Parisians had joined the first part of the revolution. Louis had lost control of the city.
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What happened on the 15th July?
Louis visited the NA to announce he was withdrawing troops from Paris and Versailles. The electors formed a new revolutionary council, the Commune and turned the citizens milita into the National Guard, commanded by Lafayette
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What was the National Guards purpose?
To keep the sans culottes under control
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What happened on the 17th July?
Louis had to share power with the NA. Necker was recalle. Louis visited Paris to recognise the NC and NG. Comte d'Artois, Louis yound=ger brother, went into exile as did many other nobles. The royal cause was lost.
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What did towns and cities across France do?
Set up revolutionary committees and National Guards to maintain order and stop counter revolutionaries. The kings intendants abandoned their posts and royal authority collapsed
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What caused the Great Fear?
Violent unrest in the country side as a result of high food prices. The kings surrender and defeat of the nobility resulted in the Great Fear
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What was the Great Fear?
Rumors of gangs of brigands had been hired by fleeing nobles to take revenge by destroying the harvests. Peasants armed themselves and attacked the hated symbols of feudal power. Chateaux and documents recording feudal obligations were burned.
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What did the National Assembly want to do about the revolts?
Wanted to crush the rural revolts but didn't want to use royal troops in case they were used against them. they decided to give the peasantry what they wanted- abolition of feudalism
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When were the August Decrees voted on?
4th August 1789
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What made up the August Decrees?
1) Feudal rights were abolished 2) Thithes, hunting rights, seigneurial courts were abolished. 3) All citizens were taxed equally 4) Everyone was eligible for church, state and army offices.
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When was the Declaration of Rights and Man and the Citizen?
26th August 1789
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What was the DoRaMatC?
Draft of the new constitution. Declared all citizens to be equal. It formally dismantled the ancient regime
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What power did the Assembly give to Louis
Needed his approval for the new decrees. Granted him a suspensive veto- delay laws for up to 4 years but not veto them completely.
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Why did the National Guard in Paris struggle to maintain order?
bread shortages triggered riots. Desmoulins and MArate reported on NA meetings and portrayed veto supporters as unpatriotic.
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What did Desmoulins and Marat advocate?
Direct action by the people
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What did Louis do?
Summoned loyal supporters to Versailles for protection. Gave him confidence to accept some of the August Decrees and question the DoRoMatC
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What did Louis Actions do?
Triggered a violent reactiona second journee.
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What were the October Days?
Women in PAris seized weapons and marched on Versailles. The NG would not stop them, they were welcomed by the NA at Versailles. Louis was forced to accept the August Decrees. The next day the crowd broke in and threatened the Queen
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What was the result of October Days?
The royal family and the deputies were forced to go to Paris. They were prisoners of the people of Paris.
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How was France divided?
Into 83 departments for elections and governments. Divided into districts and communes that were run by elected councils.
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Why was more power given to local areas?
To safeguard against a royal return to power.
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How were taxations reformed?
Everyone paid. ALl had to pay lnd tax amd tax on commercial profits paid by active citizens on moveable goods.
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What were the judicial reforms?
Courts were replaced by a uniform system. Justices of the peace in each canton, trial was by jury and tourture and mutilation was abolished. Justice was free and equal for all
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How was the Church reformed?
1) All church property became the property of the state. 2) Abuses like pluralism were abolished. 3) Clergy was paid for by the state not tithes 3) Monastic orders that provided neither education or charity work were suppressed. 4) Protestant = crs
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Why were the Clergy unhappy
Catholicism was not made the official religion.
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When was the Civil Constitution of the Clergy?
12 July 1790
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What was the Civil Constitution of the clergy?
Bishops diocese were coincided with the 83 districts. Clerical posts apart from priests were removed. Appointment to clerical posts was by election. Many clergy opposed this, the Church synod was denied; awaited the Popes decision
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When was the Clerical Oath>
27th November 1790
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What was the Clerical Oath?
Deputies forced the issue by requiring all clergy to take an oath to the constitution. The Pope came out against the reforms. Over 50% of the clergy refused to sweat the oath- refractory clergy.
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Why did a number of people now oppose the revolution?
Clash between the church and the reform
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What was laissez-faire?
An economic doctrine that opposed government interference or regulation beyond necessary.
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What was the result of the deputies believing in lassiez-faire?
All internal customs barriers were abolished as were guilds. Unions were banned and strikes were made illegal.
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How were the poor helped?
Viewed as the responsibility of the state. 2 million beggars. lacked finances
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How was income produced?
The introduction of assignats and the sale of church lands. Created a vested interest in supporting the revolution- clergy were dependent on the state for their salaries-> supporters
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How did Louis XVI's position change?
His religion and being a prisoner of Paris. Weak negotiating position
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How was Louis unhappiness at the new constitution shown?
Avoided hearing mass by clergy who had sworn the clerical oath, tried to spend Easter at Saint Cloud.
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What was the flight to Varennes?
Louis and his family left Paris in disguise. They were recognised at Varennes and brought back to Paris, greeted by a silent crowd.
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What had Louis left behind?
A proclamation denouncing the revolution
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What was the result of the flight to Varennes?
1) Louis hand't understood how popular the revolution was 2) many no longer trusted Louis 3) constitutional monarchy was in doubt 3) support for the republic had started to grow
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Why did political clubs develop?
A result of the growing revolution. Discussion of political ideas.
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Jacobin Club
Powerful political club. Wealthier section of society. Many were deputies and discussed the issues in the NA. Acted as a presure group for revolutionary ideas
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How big was the Jacobin Club?
By June 1791 it had 2400 Parisian members and clubs across France. Robespierre emerged as the leader.
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What was the Jacobins reaction to Varennes?
Argued that Louis had effectively abdicated and should not be replaced unless the nation disagreed. The republican manifesto split the Jacobins.
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What was the Cordeliers Club?
Poorer men and women and were more radical than the Jacobins. Leadership from Danto, Desmoulins, Marat and Hebert.
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What did the Cordeliers do?
Kept an eye on the NA deputies and the leaders of the democratic movement.
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Who were the Club Monarchique?
Counter-revolutionary of around 200. Included National deputies, clergy, nobility and upper bourgeoisie.
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What did the Club Monique do?
Sponsored propaganda, fostered links with emigres and similar groups across France. Worked for a return to the Ancien Regime.
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Who were The Feuillants?
Left the Jacobin Club after it split. Many were deputies of the NA and supported a constitutional monarchy. After the Champs de Mars massacre they took control and formed a new constitution.
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When was the Champs de Mars?
17 July 1791
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What was the Champs de Mars?
Organised signing session for a republican petition by the Cordeliers. 50,000 people attended. The national gaurd under Lafayette was called out to maintain order. They fired on the crowd killing 50 people
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Result of the Champs de Mars?
Leaders Brissot and Danton fled. Cordeliers club was shut down.
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When did the nee Legislative Assembly meet?
1st October, 745 newly elected members met. The electoral system favored the wealthy, mostly bourgeoisie. Many distrusted the king.
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How was the Legislative Assembly made up?
136= jacobin 264= Feuillants 345=unaligned.
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Who controlled the debates on the refractory priests and emigres?
Republican Brissot and the Girondins. Seen as revolutionary and threats
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What was the result of Girondin control?
The passing of 2 laws 1) not swearing the clerical oath was a crime 2) demanded the confiscation of emigres property.
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How did Louis unpopularity increase?
Vetoed both laws. Seen to be obstructing the Legislative Assembly's work
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Why were the other European powers monitoring the revolution?
All had monarchies. An attack on a monarch was an attack on them all. The weakening of France benifited them
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What was the 1791 Pillnitz Declaration?
Austria and Prussia threatened to combine military invention in French affairs in the support of the king. They did nothing.
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Why did the revolution become increasingly suspicious of counter-revolutionaries?
Threat and presence of emigres troops on the northern boarder under Comte d'Artois.
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Why did Republicans want war with Austria?
War would force Louis to reveal his true position and force traitors into the open
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Why did the monarchy want war with Austria?
Louis believed that if it went well he might regain his powers. If it went badly, the Austrians would restore his powers. Marie Antoinette believed Louis would benefit from a French defeat
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Why did Lafayette and Dumouriez want war with Austria?
Short successful war would strengthen the authority of the king and restore his powers.
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Why was Robespierre against a war with Austria?
Didn't trust the generals. He thought France might loose
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Why the Feuilliants against war?
Regarded peace as important to preserving the gains of a revolution that had gone far enough.
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How did the Revolutionary Wars begin?
Badly. Half the french officers in the army had become emigres and the soldiers were demoralised. Soon retreating with generals urging for peace talks.
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Who was blamed for the failure?
Louis and the Austrian Committee
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What did Lafayette want?
called for the Jacobin Club to be closed.
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Who were the Sans-culottes?
Important part of the revolution. Dominated Paris and the Paris Commune. They wanted more extreme measures than the LA such as food price control and the vote
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How did the sans-culottes become more militant?
Prices rises and food shortages in 1792
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Events of 1792
War propaganda of the Girondins, Louis uses of veto, his dismissal of Brissot and Lafayettes call for the Jacobin club to be shut down added to militancy
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What happened on the 20th June?
Thousands of sans-culottes occupied the royal palace and forced Louis to wear the red cap of liberty
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What happened in July?
A decree of a state of emergency, provincial National Guards began to arrive in Paris., joining increased calls for the end of the monarchy. Prussias army commander threatened to destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed- Brunswick Declaration.
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How was Louis identified as the enemy?
Brunswick Delaration
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What happened on the 10th August 1792
The monarchy was overthrown. Involved Danton and Robespierre. The Tuileries was attacked and the defendants were killed. The Royals took refuge with the LA. The deputies were forced to hand them over. Louis was imprisoned new elections were agreed to
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How were the elections held?
Universal suffrage. A National Convention was drawn up-> new democratic constitution of the republic
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How was the power shared out?
Legislative Assembly, Insurrectionist Commune who controlled Paris and a new body created by them both- the Provincial Executive Council- dominated by Danton
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What was the Extraordinary Tribunal?
Set up to try those accussed of counter-revolutionary crimes. Some people were guillotined on the 10th August
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How did the Revolutionary War continue to go badly?
Prussians invaded, Lafayette defected to the Austrians. As a result the Insurrectionist Commune ordered the arrest of hundreds of suspected counter-revolutionaries
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What were the September Massacres?
Rumor that the suspected counter-rs were planing on escaping and massacring the people and surrendering to the Prussians. Marat and other extramists called for them to be killed
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What were the September Massacres?
News of the fall of Verdun reached Paris. Prisons were broken into and 1,300 prisoners were killed. Paris Commune did nothing to stop this.
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How were the elections to the National Convention carried out?
Began in August, continued through September. All men over 21 could vote. The new NC met on the 20th September
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Revolutionary Wars
Prussians had been defeated at Valmy and withdrawn from France.
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Card 4

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