The Cardiovascular System

HideShow resource information
Whose ideas about the blood were accepted with little questioning?
Galen
1 of 122
Who was Galen?
An ancient Greek philosopher
2 of 122
What were Galen's ideas about the blood?
Blood is produced by the liver, pumped out by the heart and consumed by other organs of the body
3 of 122
What is William Harvey credited for?
His discovery on blood circulation
4 of 122
Why did William Harvey have widespread opposition?
Galen's ideas were so well established
5 of 122
How did Harvey overturn the population towards his theory?
He published his results, toured Europe to demonstrate his experiments and provided evidence for his theory
6 of 122
Whose theory is now accepted on blood?
William Harvey's
7 of 122
What did Harvey show about the flow of blood in blood vessels?
It is unidirectional with valves to prevent backflow. The rate of flow of blood is far to high to be consumed by the body after being pumped by the heart
8 of 122
What did Harvey show about the heart?
It pumps blood out of the heart in arteries and blood returns to the heart by veins
9 of 122
What did William Harvey predict?
The prescence of many fine vessels, too small to be seen with contemporary equipment that link arteries to veins in body tissue
10 of 122
When was blood found to flow from arteries to veins by capillaries
1660
11 of 122
When did Harvey publish his theory on blood circulation? Had microscopes been invented?
1628 - No
12 of 122
What is the name of the circulation system going around the lungs?
Pulmonary circulation
13 of 122
What is the name of the circulation system going around the organs of the body?
Systemic circulation
14 of 122
What circulation method did Harvey discover?
Double circulation
15 of 122
What type of blood is on the right side of the heart?
Deoxygenated
16 of 122
What type of blood is on the left side of the blood?
Oxygenated
17 of 122
How is deoxygenated blood transported to the lungs?
Via the pulmonary artery
18 of 122
How does oxygenated blood return to the heart?
Via the pulmonary vein
19 of 122
How does oxygenated blood get to the rest of the body?
Via the aorta
20 of 122
How is deoxygenated blood returned to the heart?
Via the vena cava
21 of 122
List the three types of blood vessel
Arteries, veins and capillaries
22 of 122
What sort of pressure do the arteries transport the blood at?
High pressure
23 of 122
Where do arteries carry blood to?
The tissues of the body
24 of 122
What do capillaries do?
Carry blood through tissues
25 of 122
Why do capillaries have permeable walls?
To allow exchange of materials between the cells in the tissue and the blood
26 of 122
What sort of pressure do veins transport the blood at?
Low
27 of 122
Which chamber of the heart do veins transport blood to?
Atria
28 of 122
Why do capillaries have thin walls?
To create allow a short diffusion distance in and out
29 of 122
What is the name of the tissue making up capillaries?
Endothelium
30 of 122
What do pores between the cells in capillary walls do?
Allow some plasma to leak out to form tissue fluid and also phagocytes can squeeze out
31 of 122
What size lumen do capillaries have?
Narrow
32 of 122
What is the lumen size of capillaries?
10 micrometres
33 of 122
Why do capillaries have narrow lumens?
To allow them to fit into small spaces and to give them a larger surface area for diffusion
34 of 122
Why do arteries have a thick wall?
To withstand the high pressures
35 of 122
Why do arteries have a narrow lumen?
To help maintain high pressures
36 of 122
What is the purpose of the thick layer of elastic fibres?
To maintain high pressure between pumping cycles
37 of 122
What is the purpose of the muscle in the arteries?
Contracts and relaxes to control the diameter of the lumen and the rigidity of the arteries to control flow
38 of 122
What other layer does an artery have?
Tough outer coat
39 of 122
Why do veins only have thin layers of tissue with few or no elastic fibres or muscle?
Blood flow is not pulsatile
40 of 122
Why do veins have a wide lumen?
To accomodate the low pressure and slow flowing blood
41 of 122
What prevents backflow in veins?
Valves
42 of 122
Where are the valves placed in veins?
At regular intervals
43 of 122
Why do veins have a thin wall?
Allows them to be pressed flat by adjacent muscles, helping them to move the blood
44 of 122
Why is it ok for the outer coat to be thin?
There is no danger of veins bursting as the pressure is low
45 of 122
According to Galen, where was blood pumped after being formed in the liver?
Between the liver and right ventricle of the heart
46 of 122
What did Galen think happened in the left ventricle?
A little blood passed in and there it met air from the lungs and became a 'vital spirit'
47 of 122
What did Galen think happened to 'vital spirits'?
Distributed all over the body by arteries. Some flowed to the brain where they became 'animal spirits' which are then distributed by nerves in the body
48 of 122
What did Harvey prove about the type of circulation in the body?
It is double circulation with pulmonary and systemic circulations
49 of 122
What in the ventricles allows blood to be pumped into the arteries and reach high pressure?
Thick strong muscle
50 of 122
The artery walls work with the heart to do what?
Facilitate and control blood flow
51 of 122
Which tissues in the arteries allow them to control blood flow?
Elastic and muscle tissue
52 of 122
What is elastic tissue made up of?
Elastin fibres
53 of 122
How do elastin fibres work?
They store energy that stretches them at the peak of each pumping cycle
54 of 122
What does elastin fibre recoil do?
Propels blood along the artery
55 of 122
What is it called if the artery wall bulges outwards?
Aneurysm
56 of 122
What type of blood vessel can you feel a pulse in?
Arteries
57 of 122
Which artery supplies the kidney with blood?
Renal artery
58 of 122
Which artery supplies the liver with blood?
Hepatic artery
59 of 122
What is the name of the tough outer layer of connective tissue in arteries?
Tunica externa
60 of 122
What is elastin?
A protein
61 of 122
What is the tunica media?
A thick layer of smooth muscle and elastic fibres
62 of 122
What is the name of the smooth endothelium lining of the artery?
Tunica intima
63 of 122
What is systolic pressure?
The peak pressure reached in an artery
64 of 122
What type of energy is stored when elastic fibres stretch?
Potential energy
65 of 122
What do the elastic fibres do when pressure decreases in the artery?
Squeeze the blood in the lumen
66 of 122
When would pressure decrease in an artery?
At the end of each heartbeat
67 of 122
What is diastolic pressure?
The minimum pressure in an artery
68 of 122
The squeezing of blood by elastic fibres does what to the diastolic pressure?
Prevents it getting too low
69 of 122
What is vasoconstriction?
The contracting of the circular muscles in the wall of the artery
70 of 122
What are branches of arteries called?
Arterioles
71 of 122
True/false: Arterioles have a high muscle density
True
72 of 122
Arterioles respond to what sort of signals to control blood flow?
Hormone and neural
73 of 122
What is the opposite of vasoconstriction?
Vasodilation
74 of 122
Does the cornea have blood vessels? Why/ why not?
No because it needs to be transparent
75 of 122
What type of cells make up the capillary wall?
Endothelium cells
76 of 122
What are the capillary cells coated with?
A filter-like protein gel
77 of 122
True/false: The permeability of capillary walls is the same for every tissue
False
78 of 122
What is the advantage of having different capillary permeabilities?
Allows certain proteins and other large particles to reach certain tissues but not others
79 of 122
True/ false: The permeability of capillaries in certain tissues changes over time
True
80 of 122
How is blood flow in veins assisted?
Other muscles like skeletal muscles and gravity
81 of 122
How do adjacent muscles assist veins?
Contraction makes muscles shorter and wider which squeezes adjacent veins to improve blood flow
82 of 122
What is the name of the vein carrying blood from the arms?
Subclavian vein
83 of 122
What is the name of the vein carrying blood from the head?
Jugular vein
84 of 122
What is the name of the blood vessel that carries blood from the stomach to the liver?
Hepatic portal vein
85 of 122
What type of valve is in veins?
Tricuspid
86 of 122
What is the diameter of an artery?
Larger than 10 micrometres
87 of 122
What is the diameter of a vein?
Variable but larger than 10 micrometres
88 of 122
How many layers are in the vein walls?
3
89 of 122
Is there muscle and elastic fibres in the veins?
Small amounts
90 of 122
Do capillaries have valves?
No
91 of 122
How does circulation work in fish?
Single circulation where blood is pumped at high pressure to the gills to be oxygenated. It still has enough pressure after to flow directly but slowly to the other organs and then back to the heart
92 of 122
Why is blood pumped to capillaries in lungs at low pressure?
Cannot withstand high pressure
93 of 122
Why do we have two circulations?
After going to the lungs, blood does not have high enough pressure to travel to the rest of the body
94 of 122
Heart muscle is included in which circulation for humans?
Systemic
95 of 122
What are the units of systolic pressure?
mm Hg
96 of 122
Why is it important for the endothelium in arteries to be smooth?
Reduces friction
97 of 122
What is the tunica externa made of and what is its function?
Woven collagen fibres anchors the artery in position and protect it
98 of 122
When does vasoconstriction and vasodilation occur?
Vasoconstriction during systolic pressure when the heart pumps and vasodilation during diastolic pressure when the heart relaxes
99 of 122
Are arteries or arterioles more susceptible to nervous and neural control for vasodilation and vasoconstriction?
Arterioles
100 of 122
What has a higher muscle density: arteries or arterioles?
Arterioles
101 of 122
What are uses of vasodilation?
Controls flow of blood to control temperature and slow flow when person is severely wounded
102 of 122
What actually is a pulse?
The vasodilation and vasoconstriction of arteries (arterial wall expansion and constriction) when blood pumps through
103 of 122
What sort of muscle helps blood flow in veins?
Skeletal muscle
104 of 122
When do valves open in veins?
When muscles contract
105 of 122
When do valves close in veins?
When muscles relax
106 of 122
Why can diffusion not occur in arteries?
Walls are too thick and rate of flow too fast
107 of 122
What are veins?
Venules joined together
108 of 122
Why are capillaries leaky?
Allow exchange of oxygen and nutrients and waste products. Allows tissue fluid and phagocytes to escape
109 of 122
In which vessel is blood flow slowest?
In capillaries to allow exchange of materials
110 of 122
What is the purpose of tissue fluid?
To bathe tissue cells
111 of 122
What does tissue fluid contain?
Water, sugars, salts, fatty acids, amino acids, coenzymes, hormones and cell waste products
112 of 122
What does tissue fluid help with and why?
Exchange of materials because it is in direct contact with capillary endothelial cells
113 of 122
What makes tissue fluid get reabsorbed into capillaries?
Osmotic pressure is higher than blood pressure
114 of 122
What forces tissue fluid out of capillaries?
Blood pressure is higher than osmotic pressure
115 of 122
What does the tunica media layer contain?
Smooth muscle
116 of 122
What does the tunica externa contain?
Collagen and elastin fibres
117 of 122
How many layers do veins have?
3 --> Tunica intima, media and externa
118 of 122
Do capillaries contain valves?
No
119 of 122
What are the diameters of veins and arteries?
Can be greater than 10mm
120 of 122
What is the diameter of a capillary?
2-10 micrometres
121 of 122
What is the approximate lumen size of a capillary?
5 micrometres
122 of 122

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Who was Galen?

Back

An ancient Greek philosopher

Card 3

Front

What were Galen's ideas about the blood?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is William Harvey credited for?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why did William Harvey have widespread opposition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Human Physiology resources »