TELEOLOGICAL ARGUMENT

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Telos- Greek meaning
end or purpose
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CICERO- Roman thinker, quotation
What could be more clear or obvious when we look up to the sky and contemplate the heavens, than there is one divinity or intelligence- DE NATURA DEORUM
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A priori or A posteriori
A posteriori
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Why?
Uses empirical evidence from our observation of the world
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First form
analogical- analogy between the world and its parts and human design
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Second form
inductive- universe demonstrates regular order and motion in its parts and as a whole
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Cause and Effect
cause- design & effect-things adapted to fulfil their function
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Richard Swinburne on science and God
It started off in such a way as to lead to the evolution of animals and humans...I am not postulating a 'God of the gaps' merely a God to explain why science explains- THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
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1st of 5 crucial features of the universe that indicate an intelligent designer
Order- objects and scientific laws operate in a regular way
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2nd of 5 crucial features of the universe that indicate an intelligent designer
Benefit- the universe provides all that is necessary for life
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3rd of 5 crucial features of the universe that indicate an intelligent designer
Purpose- objects within the universe working towards an end or purpose
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4th of 5 crucial features of the universe that indicate an intelligent designer
Suitability for human life- the universe provides the right environment for human life
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5thof 5 crucial features of the universe that indicate an intelligent designer
Appearance- the beauty of nature and the universe goes beyond what is necessary for basic survival
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St Thomas Aquinas' 5th way quotation
'it is plain that they achieve their end not fortuitously, but designedly.'- 'whatever lacks knowledge cannot move towards an end, unless it be directed by some being endowed with knowledge and intelligence'- SUMMA THEOLOGICA
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Premise 1 of the 'Way'
There is beneficial order in the universe (things work towards a purpose)
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Premise 2 of the 'Way'
This beneficial order could not happen by chance
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Premise 3 of the 'Way'
Objects do not have the intelligence to work towards an end or purpose
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Premise 4 of the 'Way'
They must be directed by something with intelligence
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Conclusion of the 'Way'
God exists
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Immanuel Kant on DA's nature quotation
This proof always deserves to be mentioned with respect. It is the oldest, the clearest and the most accordant with the common reason of mankind' CRITIQUE OF PURE REASON
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Why else did Kant support the teleological argument
A posteriori, most likely reason for universe was an intelligent designer as the universe could not be explained by itself or its inhabitants
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What is the most famous analogical form of the argument?
William Paley's watch analogy- NATURAL THEOLOGY
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Name another analogy
David Hunt's shipwreck
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Paley's 1st premise
The world was like a machine, which was made up of parts that worked towards the benefit of the whole
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Paley's 2nd premise
The 'machine' works in a methodical and constant way towards an end that could not be the result of sheer chance,
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Paley said this proved...
intelligent design
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What were the 5 things that showed (according to Paley) that the watch/ universe was designed?
specific materials/several parts/works to a purpose/regular motion/indispensable parts
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Why did Swinburne support the DA?
The providential nature of the universe-it was fit perfectly for the development of human life (what is expected of a loving creator)
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Give the 1st of 7 features which Swinburne said increased the likelihood of the universe being designed
The existence of the universe
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Give the 2nd of 7 features which Swinburne said increased the likelihood of the universe being designed
The existence of order in the universe
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Give the 3rd of 7 features which Swinburne said increased the likelihood of the universe being designed
The existence of consciousness
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Give the 4th of 7 features which Swinburne said increased the likelihood of the universe being designed
Human opportunities to be morally good
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Give the 5th of 7 features which Swinburne said increased the likelihood of the universe being designed
The pattern of history
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Give the 6th of 7 features which Swinburne said increased the likelihood of the universe being designed
Miracles
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Give the 7th of 7 features which Swinburne said increased the likelihood of the universe being designed
Religious experience
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What is regularity of co-presence
Everything in the universe works together in an orderly way
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What is regularity of succession?
The orderly pattern of the universe is very simple
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What is perspective of probability?
The easiest and most simple explanation (Ockham's Razor) for the universe is that it has a cosmic designer
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Give a quotation of Swinburne that supports this
To postulate a trillion, trillion other universes rather than one God in order to explain the orderliness of our universe, seems the height of irrationality
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What did Swinburne say about evolution- quotation?
The very success of science in showing us how deeply orderly the natural world is, provides strong grounds for believing that there is an even deeper cause of that order.' THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
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Paraphrase this in regards to evolution
God may have created the laws which govern natural selection as a means of letting human beings and animals evolve
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Who else supported this?
Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking
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What did Hawking say?
Evolution could be the mechanism through which God's creation took place A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIME
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What are 2 other forms of the DA?
The anthropic principle and the aesthetic principle
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Define the aesthetic principle
The idea that the beauty in the world is proof of intelligent design
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Define the anthropic principle
The idea that the world was designed to support human life
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F. R. Tennant supported which principle?
Aesthetic
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Give a quotation to support this
'Nature is not just beautiful in places; it is saturated with beauty. from an intelligibility point of view, beauty seems to be superfluous and to have little survival value. PHILOSOPHICAL THEOLOGY
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John Polkinghorne supported which principle?
Anthropic
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What is God's relationship with the universe according to Polkinghorne?
The beauty of natural laws suggest that they did not just happen by chance, the Universe is not fixed and unchanging but God interacts with creation by 'conducting the improvised performance of the universe'.
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So what is the explanation for the universe
God is the 'total explanation' for the design of the universe
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Polkinghorne quotation
It seems to be natural to believe that the rational order and beauty is an expression of a divine mind, and the finely tunes fruitfulness is an expression of divine purpose.' TESTING GOD:KILLING THE CREATOR
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What is the P of the universe being created by chance
1 out of 10 to the power of 60
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So...
If design is the only other alternative, it's P is 99.999%
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Give the first basis for most criticisms of the DA
It is based on the human notion of design
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Give the second basis for most criticisms of the DA
The assumption that the universe works in an orderly way
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In what work did David Hume argue against the analogical form?
AN ENQUIRY CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING AND DIALOGUES CONCERNING NATURAL RELIGION
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Why did Hume view analogies as unsound?
We have no knowledge of the universe as we do of man-made objects ALSO we can't be sure that the universe has a purpose
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Why can it be said the the DA leads to anthropomorphism?
We are limiting God's powers to those of a human designer
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Hume believed if the universe was designed, it was poorly designed- quotation
The universe is very faulty and imperfect... it is the work only of some inferior deity
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What does this lead to?
The problem of suffering and the dysteleological argument (argument from poor design)
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J. S. Mill on Evil and Suffering- quotation
If the maker of the world can do all he wills, he wills misery and there is no escaping that conclusion- NATURE AND UTILITY IN RELIGION
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Which 2 scientists have most criticised the idea that science is part of the DA
Charles Darwin and Richard Dawkins
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In which work did naturalist, Darwin, formulate the theory of evolution
ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELECTION
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Give the 1st of Darwin's 3 beliefs
Life developed in evolutionary steps
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Give the 2nd of Darwin's 3 beliefs
Living things change and adapt to fit in with the environment-The environment was not made by God for living things
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Give the 3rd of Darwin's 3 beliefs
There is too much suffering in the natural world for it to have been made by a loving God
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Give the 1st reason that Darwin criticised the DA
The universe evolved as a series of chances
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Give the 2nd reason that Darwin criticised the DA
The design of the Universe does not show its purpose
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Dawkins- quotation on evolution
Natural selection has no vision, no foresight, no sight at all. If it can be said to play the role of watchmaker in nature, it is of the Blind Watchmaker- THE BLIND WATCHMAKER
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SUMMARY 1
The Design Argument is an a posteriori, analytical and inductive argument.
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SUMMARY 2
It suggests that the universe is the work of an intelligent designer (God).
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SUMMARY 3
The supporting evidence includes a sense of order and purpose in the way the universe works.
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SUMMARY 4
The universe works with beneficial order (Aquinas).
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SUMMARY 5
The workings of the universe are like those of a watch (Paley).
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SUMMARY 6
The universe works in a providential way (Swinburne).
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SUMMARY 7
Lack of proof is one criticism of this argument.
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SUMMARY 8
Another criticism is its reliance on anthropomorphism – attributing human characteristics to non-humans such as God.
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SUMMARY 9
The universe may be the result of random chance (Dawkins).
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SUMMARY 10
The existence of evil and suffering suggests there is no intelligent designer.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What could be more clear or obvious when we look up to the sky and contemplate the heavens, than there is one divinity or intelligence- DE NATURA DEORUM

Back

CICERO- Roman thinker, quotation

Card 3

Front

A posteriori

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Uses empirical evidence from our observation of the world

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

analogical- analogy between the world and its parts and human design

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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