Systems I

  • Created by: LBCW0502
  • Created on: 05-04-18 11:40
What are the functions of the integumentary system (mechanical, chemical, bacterial, UV, thermal, desiccation)?
Physical barrier, impermeable keratinised cells, unbroken surface/antibacterial secretions, melanin pigment, heat/cold pain receptors, waterproof keratinised cells
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What is the clinical consequence of burn injuries and why?
Shock and infection as a clinical consequence
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What are the functions of the integumentary system (temperature, excretion, vitamin D)?
Increases blood flow to surface to aid heat loss (and sweat glands), reduces skin blood flow to aid heat retention (piloexcretion and shivering), excretion of urea/uric acid contained in sweat and conversion of cholesterol to vitamin D by sunlight
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Histology of integumentary system
Hairs, epidermis, skin, dermis, sebaceous gland, arrector pili muscle, hair follicle, vein, artery, nerve, fat, sweat gland, hypodermis/subcutaneous tissue
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How is hair (accessory skin structure) involved in the integumentary system?
Hair is involved in regulation of body temperature - piloerection to trap layer of air next to skin (insulation)
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What are the three types of gland (accessory skin structures)?
Mesocrine, apocrine and sebaceous
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What are the functions of the mesocrine sweat gland?
Sweat gland, loss of body heat via evaporation
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What are the functions of the apocrine sweat gland?
Present in armpits and genitalia, production of body odour
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What are the functions of the sebaceous sweat gland?
Release of oily secretion (sebum) onto hairs, prevents drying and antibacterial
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What are the functions of nails (accessory skin structure)?
Nails assist in manipulation and grasping of small objects, also used for scratching
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What are the functions of the skeletal system?
Responsible for the structure and movement of the body (allows attachment points for muscle), provides a rigid framework, giving shape and form, is jointed to allow movement
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What are the four classifications of bone?
Long bone (act as levers e.g. femur), flat bone (protects delicate organs e.g. parietal), short bones (confers strength and flexibility e.g. pisform carpal), irregular bone (anchorage points e.g. sphenoid)
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What type of cell is responsible for the production of bone?
Stem cell (osteoblasts)
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Describe features of spinal column
Basis of skeleton, 33 bony rings units by intervertebral rings of cartilage, hollow canal protects spinal cord (cervical/thoraic/lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx)
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What is the function of 1-7 of the spinal cord?
Supports skull, allows bending and twisting
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What is the function of 8-19 of the spinal cord?
Supports ribs, allows rotation and forwards and sideways movements of trunk
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What is the function of 20-24 of the spinal cord?
Allows backwards and sideways movement of trunk
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What is the function of 25-33 of the spinal cord?
Transfers weight of body to pelvic girdle and legs
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What are the four different types of joints?
Bones don't touch (cartilage covers ends of bones/lubricated by synovial fluid e.g. vertebrae), immovable joint (protection to enclosed organs e.g. skull), slightly movable (limited movement e.g. ribs), freely movable (free motion e.g. elbow/hip)
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What are the functions of skeletal muscle (system)?
Movement of skeleton, maintain erect posture, facial muscles (expression/speech/mastication), thorax/diaphragm (ventilation), abdomen (muscle sheets protect internal organs, contract to assist blood flow, defecation, vomiting, child birth)
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What are the different types of muscle shapes?
Fusiform, parallel, convergent, unipennate, bipennate, multipennate, circular (e.g. sphincter muscles)
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What is the name of the protein contractile unit?
Actin
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Describe features of class I levers
Fulcrum located between force and weight, weight balanced over fulcrum (only small amount of force needed), limited in how much weight and how high it can be lifted (e.g. move head, see-saw)
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Describe features of class II levers
Weight located between fulcrum and force, can lift a considerable amount of weight (but limited in height) e.g. stand on toes, wheel-barrow
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Describe features of class III lever
Force is located between weight and fulcrum (most common type of lever), doesn't allow a great weight to the lifted (can be lifted a great distance and weight can be increased) e.g. lifting weights, using a shovel
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Outline the structure of the nervous system
CNS, PNS, sensory (afferent), motor (efferent), autonomic (involuntary), somatic (voluntary), sympathetic, parasympathetic - involves brain, spinal cord and nerves
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What are the four main subdivisions of the brain?
Brainstem (controls functions essential to life, no conscious control e.g. heart function), cerebellum (fine co-ordination of movements e.g. walking), cerebrum (higher brain functioning e.g. thought, memories, vision), diencephalon (homeostasis, t/h)
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What are the functions of the diencephalon?
Thalamus (major sensory relay centre, influences mood/movement), subthalamus (nerve tracts and nuclei), epithalamus (olfactory stimulation, contains pineal gland), hypothalamus (major control centre for homeostasis/regulation of endocrine function)
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What are the functions of the brainstem?
Medulla oblongata (reflexes, heart rate, breathing, swallowing, vomiting), pons (relay between cerebrum and cerebellum), midbrain (visual reflex centre/auditory pathway), reticular formation (scattered in brainstem, cyclic activity (sleep/wake cycle)
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Which part of the nervous system is essential for life?
Spinal cord (grey matter - posterior, lateral, anterior horn, white matter - dorsal, ventral, lateral column) - rootlets, dorsal root, ventral root, spinal nerve, dorsal root ganglion
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Describe the features of innervation for somatic nervous system
Direct, preganglionic axon, ACh, effector
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Describe features of innervation for the parasympathetic system
Longer preganglionic axon, shorter postganglionic axon, reaches terminal ganglion, releases ACh to muscles (smooth/cardiac) and glands
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Describe features of innervation for the sympathetic system
Shorter preganglionic axon, longer postganglionic axon, releases ACh and then norepinephrine (or adrenaline) to muscle (smooth/cardiac) or gland. Other - reach adrenal medulla (bloodstream), releases epinephrine/norepinephrine
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What are the three brain gland functions?
Hypothalamus (regulates anterior pituitary), pineal gland (seasonal/circadian rhythms), pituitary gland (regulation of growth, regulation of metabolic activities of other endocrine glands) - posterior pituitary (ADH), anterior pituitary (LH/FSH)
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What disease arises as a consequence of an overactive pituitary gland?
Hyperpituitarism
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Outline the negative feedback mechanism for hypothalamic control fo endocrine glands
Hypothalamus, pituitary, peripheral endocrine glands, circulating hormones
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Which hormones are produced by the anterior pituitary gland?
Growth hormone (bones), prolactin (mammary glands), FSH/LH (testes/ovaries), adrenocorticotropic hormone (adrenal cortex) - controlled by hypothalamic hormones
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Describe features of gland function 1
Thyroid (controls metabolic rate, induction of CYPs), parathyroid (regulation calcium/phosphate, thymus, develop T/B cells), adrenal (affects metabolism, blood pressure, Na/K levels)
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Describe features of gland function 2
Pancreas (regulate blood glucose level), ovaries (production of ova, production of female sex hormones), testes (production of spermatozoa, production of male sex hormones)
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Which hormones are produced by the posterior pituitary gland?
ADH (increase water absorption from kidneys) and oxytocin (child birth) - controlled by hypothalamus
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Which hormones are produced by the adrenal cortex?
Glucocorticoids (carbohydrate metabolism) and mineralocorticoids (ion levels) - controlled by CRH and angiotensin II
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Which hormones are produced by the pancreas?
Insulin (lower blood glucose levels), glucagon (increase blood glucose levels)
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Which hormones are produced by the ovaries?
Oestrogen (affects female characteristics) and progesterone (influence menstrual cycle) - controlled by FSH and LH
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Which hormones are produced by the testes?
Androgens (testosterone) - affects male characteristics - controlled by LH
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Card 2

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What is the clinical consequence of burn injuries and why?

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Shock and infection as a clinical consequence

Card 3

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Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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Histology of integumentary system

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Card 5

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How is hair (accessory skin structure) involved in the integumentary system?

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