Surgery revison

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1799
Sir Humphry Davy discovered nitrous oxide (laughing gas) number pain, and suggested use in surgery.
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1844
Laughing gas is first used in dentistry by Horace Wells, but patient was in agony and it ruined public confidence.
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1846
Ether is first used in America as an anaesthetic by surgeons such as Warren, Morton and Crawford.
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1847
James Simpson experimented by chemicals and found chloroform was an effective anaesthetic.
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1848
Hannah Greener was the fist patient killed under the influence of chloroform during surgery.
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1858
Chloroform was popularised by Queen Victoria's use in giving birth to her eigth child.
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1861
Louis Pateur's Germ Theory proved infection was caused by microbes in the air.
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1864
Joseph Lister saw the use of carbolic acid in sewers in Carlisle and he formed the idea of treating infection.
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1865
Lister first uses carbolic soaked bandages successfully on a boy with a compound leg fracture. Initially Lister was mocked and not accepted because it made processes longer, more expensive and painful on skin.
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1878
Koch identifies septicemia microbe, confirming link between germs and disease. Plus he develops a steam steriliser.
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1894
Rubber gloves are first developed by William Hallstead, to prevent damage to hands when using carbolic acid.
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1853
Alexander Wood invents the hypodermic needle
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1895
Wilhelm Rontgen invents the X-Ray machine, which became valuable to war surgeons.
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1901
Blood types are suggested by Karl Landsteiner.
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1907
First blood transfusion using blood typing.
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1914-18
First World War creates a more desperate need for blood transfusions.
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1915
Sodium citrate is added to blood, enabling storage for longer.
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1916
Rous and Turner suggest refrigerating and adding glucose to blood to preserve it longer.
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1917
First blood depot created before the Battle of Cambrai.
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1846
Ignaz Semmelweiss made doctors wash their hands and despite a drop in pateint death rate, his ideas were not accepted and he lost his job.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Laughing gas is first used in dentistry by Horace Wells, but patient was in agony and it ruined public confidence.

Back

1844

Card 3

Front

Ether is first used in America as an anaesthetic by surgeons such as Warren, Morton and Crawford.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

James Simpson experimented by chemicals and found chloroform was an effective anaesthetic.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Hannah Greener was the fist patient killed under the influence of chloroform during surgery.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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