Sociology Culture and Identity AQA

What is low culture?
Low culture is enjoyed by the masses, it refers to elements of popular and mass culture such as TV soaps, reality TV and fast food.
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What do Marxists say about high culture?
Bourdieu, says that the whole idea of high culture is to give status to elite groups - he says that status is maintained by passing on cultural knowledge.
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What is Globalisation?
The breaking down of traditional national boundaries as globally people become more interconnected.
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What is mass culture?
Mass Culture is a set of cultural values and ideas that arise from common exposure of a population to the same cultural activities, communications media, music and art, etc.
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How do the Frankfurt School view popular culture?
They argue that it helps capitalism to oppress the Working Class by destroying community and individuality.
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What are 'false needs'?
Adorno and Horkheimer argue that the mass culture encourages you to think you 'need' to buy things which you don't really need. They are false needs.
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What is 'commodity fetishism'?
Commodity fetishism is where false needs create obsessions and desires about consumer goods - 'must have' objects.
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What did Stuart Hall mean by 'fragmented identities'?
Hall says that diversity results in fragmented identities. People can construct their identity from a range of different cultures.
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How do Functionalists link religion to the process of socialisation?
Religion produces codes of behaviour by giving sacred status to chosen values - adults socialise children to follow these codes, which promotes social conformity.
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What are the three stages of childhood development that interactionists believe are important for socialisation?
1. Children learn to communicate with others around them, but they have little understanding of how others see them. 2. A sense of empathy develops, they understand the feelings of others around them. 3. Children develop a sense of self.
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Why do postmodernists think socialisation is becoming less effective?
There is no single, accepted version of the truth and various cultural values and norms exist - this helps people to resist socialisation.
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What is the feminist perspective of the construction of identity?
Feminists argue that the patriarchal structure of society has influenced gender identity by causing people to believe in gender stereotypes.
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What is Goffman's dramaturgical model?
Goffman says that identity is deliberately constructed. You can control the way you present your identity during social interaction.
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Give two examples of labelling theories.
1. The self fulfilling prophecy in schools. 2. Strong criminal labels.
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What does the term 'immediate gratification' mean?
Where working class children are encouraged to live for the moment instead of planning for the future and deferring their gratification.
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How does negative stereotyping influence the identity of the lower classes?
Skeggs and Loveday said people felt like they were being held responsible for being into a system with structural inequalities.
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According to Marshall, why have working class identities become fragmented?
Marshall suggests that the working class still see themselves as working class, but they are more fragmented than in the past due to the loss of traditional industries.
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What is the difference between sex and gender?
Sex is the biological difference between men and women whereas gender is the cultural aspects which differ between males and females.
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Name two secondary agents of gender socialisation.
Education and the Media
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What did Rutherford mean by 'feminisation of masculinity'?
There are signs that men's roles have moved closer to women's, i.e. male models used in advertising
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What's the difference between 'race' and 'ethnicity'?
Race is associated with biology, whereas ethnicity is associated with culture.
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What makes ethnic minorities distinctive from the mainstream population?
Ethnic minorities have distinctive cultural features from their countries and cultures of origin.
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How can secondary socialisation affect ethnic identity?
Gilborn and Wright suggest that African-Caribbean pupils are often labelled as problems by teachers.
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What are Stuart Halls views about the emergence of new ethnicities?
Hall points out that for ethnic minority people, gender identity, class identity and sexuality can be as important or more important than ethnic identity.
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What are hybrid identities?
Many sociologists argue that young people from ethnic minority backgrounds are developing hybrid identities based on a mixture of influences.
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Give one example of a national symbol and one example of a national ritual.
Symbol = include things like its currency, its flag and its national anthem. Ritual = events when people are expected to think about what it means to be English etc.
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Give two agents of socialisation that can pass on attitudes about sexuality.
Religion passes on ideologies that control sexuality, Representation of sexuality in the media can be stereotyped
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What do Marxists say about high culture?


Bourdieu, says that the whole idea of high culture is to give status to elite groups - he says that status is maintained by passing on cultural knowledge.

Card 3


What is Globalisation?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is mass culture?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How do the Frankfurt School view popular culture?


Preview of the front of card 5
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