Sociology - Beliefs in society (ideology)

What was Mannheim's two types of belief systems?
1. Ideological thought (sameness): justifies why we should preserve the current social order 2. The Utopian thought (change): Points out that there needs to be social change
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What is free-floating intelligentsia?
Mannheim's solution is to detach from the social groups they represent and create "free-floating intelligentsia". Stands above conflict. Arrive at a "total worldview". Be difficult for Marxists and capitalists to work together
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What are the criticisms of Mannheim?
Neither marxists or non-marxists have fund much liking due to including influential thinkers on both ends of political spectrum. Impossible to reach a world view
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What are Pauline Marks' beliefs?
1979 - suggests ideas from science hae been used to explain rejecting women from education. Some argued it would create unfeminine females, these were said by doctors and educationalists
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How has religion shaped society?
Centre of society and should follow religious rules,
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What is Durkheim's theory; totemism?
The idea an object may be selected (often taken from natural world) to be a symbol of group membership.
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What does Durkheim mean by "collective conscience" and how may it be linked to toteism?
A totem represents the collective values of that community
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What does Durkhiem mean by sacred and profane and how may it be linked to totemism?
A totem may have sacred qualities unlike everyday objects that are profane
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What does Parsons mean by value consensus?
Argues that religion promotes a valued consensus in society
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What is the Trobriand Islands?
The islands where Malinowski did his ANTHROPOLOGICAL study
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Who coined "civil religion" and what does it mean?
Bellah - argued there can e religion of the masses. An example of civil religion is Americanism, generates widespread loyalty still incorporating supernatural belief
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What is meant by "opium of the masses"?
Marx argued that religion is a drug to wc people used to get them to accept inequality and distracting them from their situation
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What does Marx mean by "False class consciousness"?
Religion gives working class people a false consciousness and a false sense of hope and security
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What does Marx mean by Alienation?
Sees religion as a product of alienation (to be separate from something)
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How did Weber see that the values of Calvinism were shaped by belief in predestination and asceticism?
> Fortune showed God's favour for pre-destination > Calvinists were ascetic, worked hard to save and reinvest in property.
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What was happening at the time of Calvinism?
The change from feudalism to capitalism
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Why does Weber believe that the growth of capitalism was partly due to the growth of Calvinism?
>Many Calvinists were rich and owned property >Many early capitalists were Calvinists
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What are the criticisms of Weber's theory that Calvinism helped capitalism?
>Not all Calvinists are capitalists >Technology and exploration may be more influential > capitalism predates Calvinism
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What is the liberation theology?
The idea that its a christian's duty to help political and economic liberation of less fortunate "brothers". Mixes Marxist and christian teachings
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How has religion shaped society?
Religion at the centre. Monarch appointed by God. Created conflict e.g crusades. Religious festivals. Calendar based around the birth of Jesus
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How has religion changed the world?
Medical advances. Education, Gives us explanation, now socially acceptable to question religion
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What is the age of enlightenment?
1700-1800 : Period in history when ideas and values we hold now became socially established. Both science and sociology developing. Science began to take over religion in answering worldly questions.
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What did the enlightenment cause people to start thinking about?
How the world was created. Is there a god? Wanted more evidence. Why people fall ill. Is there an afterlife.
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How has the enlightenment changed the world?
French revolution, emphasis on progress, Faith in objective knowledge rather than subjective knowledge, advances in democracy, law and equality. Separation of church and state
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What is Nationalism?
Political ideology, believe nations are communities with their own set of unique characteristics, every nation should govern itself, national loyalty and identity should be prioritised.
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What did Anderson say (2006)?
Nations do not exist instead they are "imagined community". May identify with a nation however we will never know most of its members yet it binds communities together.
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What is the Marxist approach to nationalism?
Marx was an internationalist who believes all workers should unite, viewed nationalism a a from of false class consciousness that helps prevent the overthrow of capitalism.
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What is the Functionalist approach to nationalism?
View it a a secular civil religion as it unites everyone into a national community, regardless of differences.
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What did Gellner say about nationalism and modernity?
False class consciousness, Believes nationalism is very modern. Pre-industrial societies held together by small communities rather than nationalism.
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What is the difference between the sacred and the profane?
Sacred are things that provoke a feeling of aw or even fear. Profane are ordinary and mundane. Says that people who worship symbols are really worshipping society.
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What are the cognitive functions of religion according to Durkheim?
Helps cognitive capacities. Religion is the origin of concepts and so the origin of human thought.
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What are the criticism of Durkeim's theories on religion?
Wolsey (1956) stated that there is no sharp division between sacred and profane. Different clans share the same totems. His theory may apply better to small scale societies. This theory doesn't explain conflict within communities.
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What did Malinowski's study of Trobriand Island reveal?
Demonstrated that religion was important hen fishing. When they went to the lagoon they didn't practice a religious ritual, when they went to the ocean they did. Their lives were more at risk.
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What is Parson's value n meaning of religion?
Sees religion s a way to help people cope with uncontrollable circumstances. In modern society religion helps create and legitimise society's central values and is the primary source of meaning.
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Card 2

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What is free-floating intelligentsia?

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Mannheim's solution is to detach from the social groups they represent and create "free-floating intelligentsia". Stands above conflict. Arrive at a "total worldview". Be difficult for Marxists and capitalists to work together

Card 3

Front

What are the criticisms of Mannheim?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What are Pauline Marks' beliefs?

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Card 5

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How has religion shaped society?

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