Science B5

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What is a cutting?
A part of a plant that has been cut of
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What do cuttings grow into?
They grow into a clone of the parent plant
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Why are cuttings useful?
Cuttings taken from the growing part of the plant will contain unspecialised stem cells which can differentiate to make any cell
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How many different bases does DNA have?
4 (ATCG)
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Which bases always pair together?
A pairs with T. C pairs with G
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What is a gene?
A section of DNA that contains the instructions for one particular protein
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What are proteins made of?
Amino acids joining together in a particular order
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Where in the cell are proteins made?
Made in the cell cytoplasm by organelles called ribosomes.
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What is messenger RNA used for?
Messenger RNA is used to make a copy of DNA to get information from the DNA to the ribosome.
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During cell growth do the number of chromosomes halve or double?
They double as everything is copied. Therefore, there will be two sets of chromosomes.
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What is the name of the cell produced when two gametes combine?
A zygote
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In a human embryo, all the cells are undifferentiated until what stage?
The 8th stage
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How are the stem cells in an embryo different from the stem cells in an adult.
Stem cells in an adult are only in certain places like the bone marrow. They are also not as versatile as embryonic stem cells.
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What determines the type of cell a stem cell becomes
The genes that are active/switched on
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What can be added to soil to encourage cuttings to grow roots?
Rooting powder. This contains plant hormones (auxins)
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What is phototropism?
The process whereby plants grow towards or away from light
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Are shoots positively phototropic or negatively phototropic?
Positively phototropic as they grow towards the light
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Are roots positively phototropic or negatively phototropic?
Negatively phototropic as they grow away from the light
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Explain how auxins cause plant shoots to grow towards the light
When a shoot tip is exposed to light, more auxins will accumulate on the shaded side than the side which is exposed to light. This makes the cells grow (elongate) faster on the shaded side, so the shoot grows towards the light.
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In plants, where are the cells that are mitotically active found?
They are found in the plant tissues called meristems. (These are found in the roots and shoots)
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What do meristems produce?
Unspecialised cells that divide to form any cell type in the plant. They act as embryonic stem cells.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do cuttings grow into?

Back

They grow into a clone of the parent plant

Card 3

Front

Why are cuttings useful?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many different bases does DNA have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which bases always pair together?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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