Science

What is the function of a ribosome?
The function of a ribosome is in protein synthesis.
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How have microscopes developed over the years?
Microscopes have developed over the years to give increased magnification and increased resolution. Both have increased markedly since the invention of the electron microscope.
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Which of the following is an advantage of the transmission electron microscope compared with the light microscope?
Higher magnifications are possible with the transmission electron microscope. Higher resolutions are possible also.
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How is a muscle adapted to its function
Muscle is adapted to bringing about movement as it contains protein filaments that slide over each other and cause contraction. In skeletal muscle, these filaments create the bands that we see when examining muscle with the light microscope.
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Which of the following is a feature of eukaryotic cells not present in prokaryotic cells?
Mitochondria are present in eukaryotic cells but not in prokaryotic cells. These are absent in prokaryotic cells.
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Which statement is true of genes?
A gene is a short section of DNA that codes for a protein. Humans have 46 chromosomes.
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How many chromosomes does a human have in each body cell?
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes in each body cell.These consist of 22 pairs of autosomes, and a pair of sex chromosomes
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What happens in the stage that is before mitosis in the cell cycle?
The stage before mitosis involves a period of growth, during which time DNA is checked for errors. The daughter cells must be perfect copies of the parent cell.
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What are guard cells in plants specialised to do?
Guard cells in plants are specialised to open and close to let carbon dioxide into the leaf for photosynthesis. Guard cells do contain chloroplasts, but photosynthesis is not their main role.
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Which factor will decrease the rate of diffusion across a membrane?
Decreasing the temperature will decrease the rate of diffusion across a membrane. Increasing the surface area of the membrane will increase the rate of diffusion.
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Decreasing the temperature will decrease the rate of diffusion across a membrane. Increasing the surface area of the membrane will increase the rate of diffusion.
When placed in water, red blood cells swell up and burst. There will be a continued, net movement of water into the cells by osmosis.
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Which of the following organisms has the largest surface area to volume ratio?
A bacterium has the largest surface area to volume ratio. The elephant is the largest organism, but as organisms increase in volume, their surface area does not increase at the same rate.
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Which of the following is a correct statement about osmosis?
In osmosis, water moves from a region of high concentration to a low concentration across a partially permeable membrane.
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The mass of a cylinder of beetroot was 2.5 g. If its final mass in an osmosis experiment was 2.7 g, what was the increase in mass in per cent?
The increase in mass is eight per cent.The calculation is (2.7 - 2.5) ÷ 2.5 × 100.
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Which of the following involves passive movement?
The movement of carbon dioxide into a leaf involves passive movement. The carbon dioxide moves along a concentration gradient. The other examples move against a concentration gradient.
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What molecules are the buillding blocks of proteins?
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Fatty acids and glycerol are used to build lipids.
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The digestion of which food molecule by enzymes begins in the mouth?
The digestion of starch by enzymes begins in the mouth. Here, it is broken down into maltose, a double sugar, but not fully broken down into glucose.
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Which secretion is released into the duodenum?
Bile is released into the duodenum. Bile is produced by the liver and stored into the gall bladder until its release.
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What is the main function of the small intestine?
The main function of the small intestine is the absorption of digested food molecules. The breakdown of starch into maltose occurs in the mouth.
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What is an active site?
The active site is the region of an enzyme that binds the substrate molecule, or molecules. The active site has a complementary shape to the substrate.
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The enzyme amylase breaks down which food chemical?
Amylase breaks down starch. Amino acids are the product of protein digestion and are ready to be absorbed through the gut wall.
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Which statement is true of enzyme activity?
Enzyme activity depends on the number of collisions between the enzyme and substrate. An increase in temperature therefore increases the rate of enzyme activity, though high temperatures may denature an enzyme.
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What is the function of bile?
The main function of bile is to emulsify lipids. Bile contains no digestive enzymes.
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Why do multicellular organisms need a transport system?
Multicellular organisms need a transport system to move molecules internally when the rate of diffusion would be too slow. Surface area is more concerned with entry of molecules into an organism's body.
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Which path describes the movement of oxygenated blood?
The path that describes the movement of oxygenated blood is the pulmonary vein, to the left atrium, to the left ventricle. The path from the vena cava to the right atrium describes how deoxygenated blood moves on its return to the body.
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Which statement is true of pulmonary circulation?
Pulmonary circulation involves the collection of oxygen from the alveoli in the lungs. Blood is delivered to the extremities of the body by the systemic circulation.
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Which type of blood cell does not have a nucleus?
A red blood cell does not have a nucleus. The nucleus is lost during the development of the red blood cell so that more haemoglobin can be packed into the cell.
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Which type of blood cell produces antibodies?
Lymphocytes produce antibodies. Phagocytes ingest bacteria.
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Which statement best describes a vein?
Two characteristics of veins are that they have thin walls and a wide lumen. It is arteries that have thick, muscular walls.
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What is a stent?
A stent is a tube of thin wire mesh that is used to keep a coronary artery open. It is an artificial pacemaker that is used to control an irregular heart beat.
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How does water enter a root hair cell?
Water enters a root hair cell by osmosis. Water moves from soil water, with a high water potential, into the root hair cell, with a lower water potential.
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Water enters a root hair cell by osmosis. Water moves from soil water, with a high water potential, into the root hair cell, with a lower water potential.
Spraying with an anti-transpirant reduces water loss by transpiration, so that fewer needles fall while indoors. The anti-transpirant would reduce the rate of photosynthesis by reducing carbon dioxide uptake.
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Why does the rate of transpiration increase as the light intensity is increased?
The rate of transpiration increases because the plant opens its stomata to take up carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Plants produce carbon dioxide by respiration.
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Which of the following best explains how cancer cells can spread around the body?
Which of the following best explains how cancer cells can spread around the body?
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Which of the following best explains how cancer cells can spread around the body?
Which of the following best explains how cancer cells can spread around the body?
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Card 2

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How have microscopes developed over the years?

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Microscopes have developed over the years to give increased magnification and increased resolution. Both have increased markedly since the invention of the electron microscope.

Card 3

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Which of the following is an advantage of the transmission electron microscope compared with the light microscope?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is a muscle adapted to its function

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which of the following is a feature of eukaryotic cells not present in prokaryotic cells?

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