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what are the three phases of schizophrenia?
Prodomal phase, active phase and residual phase
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What is the prodomal phase?
when the positive symptoms are mild and the sufferer is still able to work and have a social life
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what is the active phase?
the positive symptoms are strong and multiple symptoms are present, it can last months or years depending on treatment
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what is the residual phase?
the main positive symptoms subside but negative symptoms persist. the sufferer is unable to work or function socially
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genetic explanations...
heritability explains 50% of the cause, child with a schizophrenic parent has a 1 in 8 chance of having it, adoption studies support genetic explanations, concordance rates in monoziogitc twins were 80% when the disorder was most severe
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what is the dopamine hypothesis?
people with schizophrenia have excess levels of dopamine, and therefore increases the rate of firing at the synapse, enhancing communications between neurons which is associated with positive symptoms
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Support for biochemical explanations...
amphetamines and cocaine can cause positive symptoms and exaggerate them in the people with the disorder. post-mortems have shown schizophrenics have high levels of dopamine in the brain. Anti-psychotic drugs reduce levels of dopamine + symptoms
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other biological explanations...
abnormal brain structure (enlarged ventricles), complications at birth and viral infection of mother during pregnancy
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Cognitive explanations...
focused on faulting thinking and the positive symptoms of disturbed language, schizophrenics don't monitor their thought correctly and attribute them to something in the external world
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cognitive explanations of negative symptoms...
sufferers try to keep mental stimulation to a manageable level using cognitive strategies when they experience high levels of info from the external world and their inner world
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Sociocultural explanations (Labelling)
when a person is labelled schizophrenic their behaviour will change, it becomes a self-fulling prophecy (Rosenhan's study)
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Sociocultural explanations (Family dysfunction)
family relationships could be a stress factor contributing to schizophrenia, high levels of family arguments, difficulties in communication and highly critical parents are the main reasons
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what does double-bind mean?
it's a type of faulty communication, a parent verbally gives one message but their body language gives another, this confuses the child and negative symptoms are most likely the result
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What is expressed emotion?
within families where hostility and criticism a normal there is a high expressed emotion, 70% of schizophrenics relapse within a year compare to 30% in families with low expressed emotion
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conventional antipsychotic drugs
they can reduce frequency and strength of hallucinations by blocking the receptors for dopamine in the synapse, the drug must be taken regularly or symptoms return
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Side effects of conventional antipsychotic drugs...
similar muscle tremors to parkinsons, shuffling of feet, slow movements, bizarre facial movements and tardive dyskinesia- jerky movements, involuntary smacking of lips
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Atypical antipsychotic drugs
can reduce both positive and negative symptoms, they work to change the levels of serotonin
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Side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs
weight gain, nausea, irregular heart beat and excess salivation. very few sufferers experience a life threatening disorder when the white blood cells drops dramatically
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How useful are antipsychotic drugs?
they can reduce the positive symptoms so someone can live a normal life, both drugs have bizarre side-effects, 25% of sufferers don't respond to drug treatment, if treatment is stopped the symptoms come back quicker/stronger
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Behavioural treaments
based on operant conditioning or SLT. token economies are used in wards, reward for good behaviour, punishment for inappropriate behaviour. does little to treat delusions and hallucinations and the underlying psychological disturbances
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Family therapy
members of the family are encouraged to be more tolerable, improved positive communication and help all members realise they aren't responsible for the illness and therefore make them feel less guilt
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community care..
should provide a wide range of support and treatments where social skills and friendships can develop if support is withdrawn though relapse chances are high and the sufferer will return to the active phase
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Card 2


What is the prodomal phase?


when the positive symptoms are mild and the sufferer is still able to work and have a social life

Card 3


what is the active phase?


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Card 4


what is the residual phase?


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Card 5


genetic explanations...


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