What is type 1 schizophrenia?
Positive symptoms
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What is type 2 schizophrenia?
Negative Symptoms
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What are positive symptoms?
Delusions, Experience of control, hallucinations, disordered thinking
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What are negative symptoms?
Affective flattening, alogia (speech), avolition (motivation)
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What is the criteria for the DSM IV?
2 or more symptoms:(delusions, hallucinations, disordered speech, catatonic behaviour), social/ occupational dysfunction, present for more than 6 months
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What are the 5 issues with validity of the DSM?
Co-morbidity, distinguishing symptom (pos/neg), predictive validity, ethnicity and labelling
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What is the DSM IV?
The diagnostic Statistical Manual which all use in diagnosis in psychological problems
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What is the diathesis-stress model?
a biological predisposition for schizophrenia is only developed when significant psychological stressors are present. (Gottesman and Reilly)
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What is the difference between MZ and DZ twins?
MZ share 100% of genes, DZ share only 50%.
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What did Gottesman and Shield find from a study on twins?
They found that the closer related to a family member with schizophrenia, the more likely you were to develop it yourself. 2 schiz parents=46% 1 schiz parent=13%
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What is temperal validity?
If research from a long time ago is still applicable in newer society
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What did Tienari find in an adoption study?
he found that from 164 Finnish adoptees with biological mothers with schizophrenia, 11 (6.7%) were diagnosed compared to 2% of control group
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What is said to be the link between ventricles and schizophrenia?
Ventricles are said to be enlarged in the brain of a schizophrenic. However it is said that the loss of brain fluid which fills ventricles is actually what causes schizophrenia.
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What does the biological approach refer to?
Genetics and Adoption studies vs the environment.
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What does the neuroanatomical approach refer to?
Ventricles and hypofrontity
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What is hypofrontity and its link to schizophrenia?
It is where frontal lobes have less brain tissue and so have reduced activity/ Molina et al found that those who had hypofrontity were much more likely to develop schizophrenia.
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What is the dopamine hypothesis?
Those who have higher D2 receptors in the brain have more dopamine binding to them and so more neurons, giving them a higher dopamine activity. They could also fire too easily which would cause symptoms.
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What support does amphetamines give to the dopamine hypothesis?
Amphetamines are a dopamine agonist, so stimulates nerve cells with dopamine, causing flooded synapses and so hallucinations etc.
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Why is the dopamine hypothesis biologically deterministic?
It assumes if you have high dopamine levels you will have schizophrenia, not accounting for free will and other factors (environment)
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What are conventional drugs?
Also known as typical drugs, and combat positive symptoms, have some effect on negative (serotonin). Reduce the effect of dopamine by binding to the D2 receptors as a permanent block.
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What are a-typical drugs?
Act on the dopamine, but block serotonin as well, temporarily occupy D2 receptors. They have less side effects but are temporary.
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What is ECT?
A shock to the brain which is used in a series of goes to eliminate the symptoms. It is thought to be a biological treatment. Only effective when others (drugs) do not work.
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What is the cognitive explanation of schizophrenia?
Where a schema is developed or an irrational belief. Also could be that too much stimuli gets into the brain which then means they cannot focus.
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What is the hemsley model?
There is a breakdown between the information in the brain and new sensory information. We give meaning to new stimuli, from schemas, but schizophrenics schema are not activated and so they have a sensory overload and don't know what to attend to.
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What is frith's model?
He explains the onset and maintenance of pos symptoms. Not only important stimuli gets into the brain, so they respond to useless stimuli as if it needs to be acted upon (bus).
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What are the three symptoms Frith explains of deficits in cognitive process?
The inability to generate willed action, inability to monitor willed action and the inability to monitor the beliefs and interactions of others.
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What would the treatment be for the cognitive explanation?
CBT (Cognitive Behavioural Therapy)
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What would be the treatment from a biological explanation?
ECT or drugs
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What psychological factors could create the onset of schizophrenia?
life events, expressed emotion within a family, double bind (seek and reject actions from parents)
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What is expressed emotion?
Family communication style where criticisms, hostility and emotional overload are very common.
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What is the double bind theory?
children can receive contradictory messages from a parent which can cause schizophrenia. Telling them you love them while turning away would be an example.
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What is labelling and what can it cause?
Labelling is where someone is repeatedly called something and then internalise it, which could then lead to them becoming a self fulfilling prophecy.
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What two books can be used to diagnose schizophrenia?
ICD-10 and DSM-IV
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What is milieu therapy?
A residential treatment where they are given routine etc before being taken back to reality.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is type 2 schizophrenia?


Negative Symptoms

Card 3


What are positive symptoms?


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Card 4


What are negative symptoms?


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Card 5


What is the criteria for the DSM IV?


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