Size and span within in Russia
In 1894, Russia covered 8 million square miles. Between 1815 and 1914 the population had quadrupled from 40 million to 165 million, mostly in west european part of Russia.
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What are the two principal cities in Russia?
Moscow and St Petersburg were in the west.There is a one mark railway track connecting east and west Russia, the trans Siberian railway.
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How many nationalities in Russia?
21 different nationalities in Russia. Different groups spoke different languages so communication would be difficult.
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Did the mix of nationalities affect Russia?
different people had different beliefs and cultures and wouldn't want to do things the Russian way. Were different religions and so worship was not the same.
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How Russia conquering the smaller countries affected them
People such as the poles had been conquered in the 18th century and didn't want to be involved in Russia.
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The Romanov dynasty and there coming to power.
In 1613 the Romanov dynasty became the ruling family . Tsar has absolute power with no limits.
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How the Tsar's power was exercised through the official bodies
Imperial Council - responsible to the Tsar. Cabinet of ministers- people who run various departments. Senate - supervised to operation of the law.
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The involvement of the Church
Russian orthodox church was entirely independent doesn't have any outside authority. By late 19th century, it had become deeply opposed to any political reform. Church taught Russian people that their duty was to worship and do as the Tsar pleases.
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The belief of the Tsar and God as one
The belief that the Tsar was chosen by God and that he had the 'Devine right' to rule.
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Economy in Russia
Low numbers of urban workers because of a lack of industrial growth. Some extensive textiles factories in major cities and large mining.
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Economic problems in Russia
There was a lack of a banking system and entrepreneurialism is discouraged.
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Agriculture in Russia
Lots of Russia was to far north to be good for farming. Not enough fertile land to be shared.
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peasants and the land loans
Since 1861, peasants were allowed to apply for a loan from the gov.t to buy their land. The land was expensive and those that took out loans were burdened with loans that took generations to pay off.
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Russian elite opinion of the peasants.
Among the elite, there was a massive prejudice against the peasants and there was a belief that they should not have any rights.
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Size of the peasant population in Russia
sheer size of the peasants as a social group led to belief that they myst be constantly repressed or would rise up.
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The peasants isolation
Peasants were kept in safe ignorance showing the belief that if they were to read and write would become dangerous.
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The army in the 1900's
Conditions in the army were poor and camps were in the remote regions of the country. Training was notoriously brutal and over 1 million soldiers died during peace time in the 19th century.
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Spending on the army
The army was 45% of spending in 19th century and still had poor equipment.
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The beauracracy of Russia
The Russian civil service was corrupt and nepotism is wildly used. Most members are complacent and worked for their own advantage. At the local and national levels bureaucracy controlled police, the law and tax. People couldn't complain.
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Why couldn't Russia change?
many members of the elite accepted that reform was necessary but there was disagreement about how this was achieved.
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Who were the 'westerners'?
People who believed that Russia needed to copy and adapt the best features of the economic and political systems of west Europe.
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Who were the 'slavophiles'?
People who believed that western values were corrupting and that Russia needed to preserve itself and slavic culture and tradition.w
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change in autocratic society
The autocratic structure of Russia meant that any change had to come from the Tsar. In the past there had being progressive Tsars who reformed things, but change happened in personal view rather than systematically.
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Who was Alexander II?
Alexander II was one of the most progressive Tsars. In 1861, he signed the emancipation of the serfs act freeing Russian slaves and allowing them to buy land.
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How this affected the Slaves
Many slaves were upset by this because many of them had created stable homes in their places of work.
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The Zemstvo's founding by Alexander II
The creation of the zemstvo's which were elected rural council. Voting regulations were against the poor so only the land owners were represented.
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Limits to his reign
He wanted to make reforms. He wanted to reduce the opposition against Tsarist reign.
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Alexander II's assassination
In 1881 he was assassinated by a group of revolutionaries.
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His successor Alexander III
His successor was harsh and repressive in his reign and it became known as the reaction.
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Nicholas II coming to the throne
When Nicholas II came to the throne in 1899, he was set to follow in these repressive policies.
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How Nicholas II upbringing affected him
He was tutored by a minister known for a deep dislike of all forms of democracy. suspicious of the Russian public and regards them as assassins, ready for violence. He believed autocracy was the only form of govt. in Russia.
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His policy of Russification
It severely enforced the restriction of non-Russian minorities. Russia is the only language in Russia. Discrimination became more open and vindictive. Jews suffered heavily development of ghettos and use of pogroms, violence of Jews & properties.
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The response to this was:
Opposition to the Tsarist regime intensified and became more organised. At the point when Russia most needed unity, Russification alienated half of the population . Many Jews fled Russia and those who stayed had a hatred for Tsarist reign.
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Four people who opposed the Tsar (A01a)
Octoberists, Social revs, populists and kadets.
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Who are the Octoberists ?
Liberal group.These people are the land owners and factory owners. The main people at this point are Guchkov and Rodzianko. They wanted a peaceful, organised, working Russia and the maintenance of Russia was there concern.
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Who are the Populists?
A revolutionary group. They were peasantry who wanted to overthrow the Tsar. They were lower class, however were lead by middle class. They wanted to overthrow tsarist system and educate Russia.
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Who are the Kadets (the constitutional democrats)?
Liberal group and largest of the liberal parties.Leader was a professor. Professional workers and most were university educated. They wanted a constitutional monarchy, the government to have power but the Tsar to still be involved.
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Who are the social revolutionaries?
A revolutionary group. Workers were a growth from the populist part. Lower class and possibly been uneducated. They wanted the end of stardom and wanted to widen the concepts of the people.
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Who were the social democrats?
A revolutionary group who supported Karl Marx and majority were Russian workers and industrialist.
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What did they want?
A new changed Russia that ran on the idea of Karl Marx. How united were they: they were united however they became impatient with Plekhanov and adopted Lenin to the role. They were united in how to think but how it should be done
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Who did they want to appeal to?
Lenin wanted to appeal to the educated people using the leaflet and newspapers. By using well educated people it influences people as they would see trustworthy and educated people who knew what exactly they were supporting.
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Who are the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks?
Bolshevik- Russian for majority and Menshevik - Russian for minority.
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Why are their names misleading?
Because, the Bolsheviks wanted a tight knit, exclusive organisation of professional revolutionaries. The Mensheviks, however wanted an open organisation and open to all that wanted to join.
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Why did the two counterparts not get on?
The Bolsheviks and Mensheviks disagreed on all factors of party life: How to revolt, the parties themselves, what decision was made and what for and the strategy adapted.
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What Lenin wanted?
That Russian's should be equal and there should be no aristocratic system. Because they disagreed on how power was to be took.
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How much of an impact was Lenin able to have before 1917?
Lenin was in exile, he spent this between Switzerland/France/Finland/Austria. He filtered between the countries and Russia- however this visits were rare and quick. He although had a select group of followers however not a lot was done before 1914.
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Lenin's tactics
He set up training schools so people were ready and informed. They made sure they had funding however they did make intentions to some extent clear - bombings.
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How much of a threat were they seen as? And why?
They were regarded as on the fringe terrorists who were deemed small and not a worry.
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What was the great spurt?
In the 1890's Russian industry grew so rapidly that it was called the great spurt. One of the main reasons for this was the increase in coal production in Ukraine. This sudden acceleration was the result of private enterprise.
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Who was Sergei Witte?
Sergei Witte was the minister for finance and he was the outstanding individual who helped the great spurt's progression and he served as the minister for finance between 1892 to 1902.
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State capitalism - when the government controlled the economy
Witte believed that modernisation could only be achieved by state capitalism. He negotiated large loans from abroad and imposed heavy taxes in Russia to raise money to invest in industry.
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Majority of the Russian capital that Witte raised was invested into railways. There was a transport revolution during Witte's overseeing. The trans-siberian railway was completed during this period however it promised more than delivered.
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Was Witte succesful? Economic growth factors look good but two factors need to be remembered:
The population was growing rapidly so production was not matching the number of Russian people. Russia was starting from a much lower point than other nations so the results look more impressive compared to other countries.
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Witte's problems
He made Russia dependent on foreign loans and investments. He gave priority to heavy industry and neglected light industry such as: tool production. He paid no attention to Russia's agricultural needs.
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Witte's problems continued:
He faced constant demands from military commanders that their transport and equipment needs were priority. He met a strong resistance to change from the court and government.
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His purpose
The main purpose of his economic policies was to make the economy strong so the Tsarist system might be saved. Ultimately he was never liked by the Tsar and in 1903 Tsar Nicholas II forced Witte to resign.
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The great spurt ends
The massive growth was not just Witte's work, there was a global boom in trade in 1890.
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The global recession
By the 20th century, there was a global trade recession so workers were made redundant and production was cut back. In Russia's cities there was a problem with overcrowding and unemployment.
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Why did Russia declare war on Japan in 1904? Nicholas II foreign policy
Largely determined by the size of the Russian empire and inherited from his father. Constant struggle to maintain borders and protect frontiers.
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Russia's motives for war
To expand in the East to make up for relative decline in the west.To obtain an ice free port because all of Russia's existing ports became unstable in the winter. To distract attention from Russia's domestic troubles by rallying the nation in war.
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The path to war
Russia looked on the Japanese as an inferior nation and expected easy victory. Territorial disputes over Manchuria and Korea were a long standing issue. In 1904,Japan proposed a settlement of the dispute but Russia rejected it.They wanted retaliation
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The course of war
Russia had greatly underestimated Japan who embarked on a series of reforms to modernise: The Japanese army was better equipped and prepared than the Russians and won a number of striking victories over them.
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The baltic fleet incident
In 1904, the Russian baltic fleet was dispatched to the Far east took 8 months to arrive. when it arrived in may 1905, it was destroyed immediately by the Japanese at Tsushima. Russian government forced to sign for peace.
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The treaty of Plymouth
In September 1905 the Treaty of Plymouth was signed. The treaty meant that all Russian troops withdrawn and Japan has Port Arthur and Korea.
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1905 revolution why?
1905 was the first time the government faced a challenge from the industrial workers, the peasantry and the reformist middle classes at the same time. This was accidental rather than planned and was a result of the tsar's ill judged response to event
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How does the revolution start?
On 22nd January 1905, Father Gapon (an orthodox priest) tried to lead peaceful march w/ the workers to the winter palace. Their intention was to present a petition to the Tsar, beginning him to use his authority to influence change.
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Bloody Sunday
Father Gapon's march created panic amongst the police in St. Petersburg and they opened fire on the workers. Around 200 were killed and 100's more injured. The deaths were looked at by opponents of the Tsarism as slaughter of innocent workers.
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The damage on the Tsar after Bloody Sunday
The traditional view of the Tsar is damaged beyond repair even though the Tsar Nicholas II was not in St Petersburg on Bloody Sunday.
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Disorder spreads after Bloody Sunday
Immediate reaction was a widespread outbreak of disorder.
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Card 2


Moscow and St Petersburg were in the west.There is a one mark railway track connecting east and west Russia, the trans Siberian railway.


What are the two principal cities in Russia?

Card 3


21 different nationalities in Russia. Different groups spoke different languages so communication would be difficult.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


different people had different beliefs and cultures and wouldn't want to do things the Russian way. Were different religions and so worship was not the same.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


People such as the poles had been conquered in the 18th century and didn't want to be involved in Russia.


Preview of the back of card 5
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