Rivers

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  • Created by: michi_99x
  • Created on: 31-03-16 10:17
Name the start and the end of the river
The start of the river is the source and the end is the mouth.
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What are tributaries?
Tributaries are smaller rivers branched off of the main river
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What is a confluence?
This is when the smaller rivers meet with the main river.
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What is the Drainage Basin?
A drainage basin is the area drained by the river or the tributaries.
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What is the watershed?
A watershed is the boundary of the drainage basin.
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What are the three courses of the river?
The three courses of a river are upper course, middle course and lower course.
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What are the properties of an upper course?
In the upper course, there is a V-Shaped valley where gorges and waterfalls may form, it is also narrow here.
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What are the properties of the middle course?
Here, in the middle course, there is a wider floodplain and there are still steep sides
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What are the properties of the lower course?
In the lower course, it is much wider, with a flat-floored valley with meanders and ox-bow lakes.
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What does the lower course do more than the upper course?
The lower course, has a higher velocity, higher discharge and volume and a lower gradient. Deposition also takes place here.
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Name the four types of erosion
The four types of erosion are hydraulic action, corrosion,abrasion and attrition.
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What is the process of attrition?
Attrition is when material hit against each other and over time they become softer, smoother and smaller.
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What is the process of hydraulic action?
Hydraulic action is the power of water against the bed and banks which due to higher velocity.
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What is the process of corrosion?
Corrosion is when the material in the river are broken down by chemicals such as acid rain/
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What is the process of abrasion (corrasion)?
Abrasion is when the material hits against the bed and the banks, which causes them to be smaller and rubbed away.
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What are the four types of transportation?
The four types of transportation are saltation, solution, traction and suspension.
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What is the process of saltation?
Saltation is when smaller pebbles bounce against the bed
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What is the process of solution?
Solution is when lighter material is dissolved and carried along in the water.
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What is the process of traction?
The process of traction is when there is larger bed load which is when it is dragged or rolled along the bed.
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What is the process of suspension?
Suspension is when there is light material which is carried along within the water
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Describe the process of deposition?
A lot of energy is required for transportation but when energy is reduced, the river is forced to deposit particles.
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Name a few river landforms
Some types of river landforms are meanders, ox-bow lakes,floodplains,levees and waterfalls.
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What is the process of a meander?
A meander is just a bend in a river. The velocity on the outside is higher causing erosion to occur which forms a steep river-cliff. The inside of the meander has a lower velocity, causing deposition of sediment. and forms a slip-off slope.
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What is the process of an ox bow lake?
A n ox-bow is created when there is lateral erosion, which widens the floodplain. The meander migrates more down the stream ,making it larger and wider over time. the river takes a shorter cut across to the meander neck.Ox bow lakes dry up over time
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What is a floodplain?
A floodplain is the wide, flat area of land, which is placed across the lower-middle course. Erosion and deposition can happen. Deposition happens on the slip-off slope, building it over time. water pours on floodplain
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What are levees?
Levees are the natural embankments of deposition of first the coarest sediment then the lighter sediment along the riverbanks which could be higher than the floodplain.
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What is the process of weathering?
Weathering is the the break down and decay of rock by natural processes without any use of movement.
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What is the process of mass movement?
Mass movement is the downslope movement of material due to gravity.
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Describe the process of freeze thaw weathering
In freeze-thaw weathering, water enters the gap at the temp. 0.c, the water freezes. Now it expands due to pressure and breaks apart.
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Describe the process of acid rain
Rain is acidic, especially caused by air pollution. It can easily dissolve and lets material like limestone wear away
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Describe the process of biological weathering
Biological weathering is when plant roots of plants and trees sometimes overgrow and exerts pressure
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Describe the process of soil creep
Soil creep is when individual soil particles slowly move down due to gravity and form ridges across the hill
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Describe the process of slumping
Slumping is when it rains and forms the soil to become saturated and heavy, this causes the surface to become lubricated. It falls due to gravity in a rotational manner in a large amount
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Describe the process of rock fall
Rock fall is when the individual rocks move in a rotational manner due to gravity and collects at the bottom of the downslope.
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How are interlocking spurs formed?
Interlocking spurs are formed when there is vertical erosion and cuts downwards in the upper course
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How is a V-shaped valley created?
A v-shaped valley is created by gradual mass movement that makes steep sides.
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Key terms in a waterfall?
Hard rock (granite) above soft rock (clay), erosion, undercut, plunge pool, overhanging, steepgorge-like valley and water retreats upstream
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What causes a flood?
A flood is caused by overflowing banks. There is heavy rainfall, trees that infiltrate water and concrete which impermeable rock
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Name three types of physical causes of flooding
Three types of physical causes includes intense rainfall, impermeable rocks and snow melting
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Name three types of human causes of flooding
Three types of human causes include global climate change, urbanisation and deforestation.
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What does intense rainfall do to cause flooding?
Intense rainfall causes there to be less infiltration and the water runs across the surface into the channel
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How does snow melting cause flooding?
Snow melt can cause flooding when it is spring all the snow melts and runs across the surface into the channel
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How does impermeable rock cause flooding?
Impermeable rock causes flooding by not allowing water to be absorbed by the surface, and the water runs across the surface into the channel.
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How does deforestation cause flooding?
Deforestation causes less water is being stored for there is less trees for photosynthesis.
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How does urbanisation cause flooding?
Urbanisation can cause flooding by town and cities having more impermeable land such as concrete
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How does global climate change affect flooding?
Global climate change can affect flooding by ice caps melting causing sea levels to rise.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are tributaries?

Back

Tributaries are smaller rivers branched off of the main river

Card 3

Front

What is a confluence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the Drainage Basin?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the watershed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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