• Created by: bibibibra
  • Created on: 19-09-18 09:07
water in any form which falls from the atmosphere to the surface of the earth
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process by which liquid water transforms into vapour
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process by which water is lost from a plant through the stoma in its leaves
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passage of water into soil. Water drawn into soil by gravity and capillary attraction
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downward vertical movement of water within a soil. Water enters groundwater
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soil moisture storage
water found in soil
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base flow / ground water flow
part of river's discharge which is produced by groundwater slowly seeping into river bed
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ground water storage
water that collects underground in pore spaces of soil and rock. When it fills all pores, the rock is sad to be saturated
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surface storage
total volume of water held on earth's surface in lakes, ponds and puddles
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surface run-off / overland flow
movement of water over land surface, usually when ground is saturated or frozen or when precipitation is too intense for infiltration to occur
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through flow
water which moves down through subsoil. Particularly effective where further downward percolation or is prevented by underlying impermeable rock
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stem flow
water which runs down from stems and branches of plants during and after rainstorm in order to reach ground surface. Takes place after interception occurs
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through flow / drip/ dripfall
water drips on leaves during and after rainstorm. When leaf has exceeded capacity to hold water, it falls to the ground surface
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rock or surface which allows water to pass through and into it
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rock or surface which does not allow water to pass through or into it
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allows water to pass through, making use of space between pores. Rock are porous since they allow water to penetrate gaps between rock particles
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allows water to pass through due to cracks or defects.
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total of both transpiration and evaporation
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hydrological cycle
the process of recycling water
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drainage basin
area inside interfluve where water falls
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area which a river begins
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a boundary between two drainage basins marked by an area of high land
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point at which 2 rivers join
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a smaller river that joins a larger river
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drainage density
total length of all streams in the basin divided by the total area of the basin
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point at which a river meets the sea
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river regime
a rivers annual pattern of discharge
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annual hydrograph
a graph showing how a river's discharge changes over the course of one year
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storm hydrograph
a graph which shows the discharge of a river during a storm
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volume of water flowing through a river during any time period at any point along the river
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refers to the rate of water movement
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lag time
time period between the peak rainfall and the peak discharge
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rising limb
period during which river discharge increases
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falling limb
period during which river discharge decreases
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antecedent discharge
discharge before a storm
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long profile
the change in altitude of the course of the river form its source, along the entire length of its channel, the the river mouth
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competence stage
the maximum size of particles that the river is capable of transporting at the baneful stage
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total amount that the river is carrying
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Hjulstorm curve
a graph showing the relationship between stream velocity and rise of sediment which is picked up, transported and deposited
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Bradshaw model
a model showing how a river channel changes as you move downstream, mainly looking at discharge and sediment
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the wearing away of the surface of the Earth
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when a river uses its load or sediment to wear away the river bed and banks
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attraction / corrosion
when particles of sediment in the load of a river bump into each other and war each other away. Resulting in sediment becoming smaller and more rounded
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hydraulic action
direct force of flowing river water breaks material from the bed and banks
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the force of exploding air in cracks within material
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compress and decompress water in cracks in the river bank, leading to the formation of air bubbles which explode outwards and weaken the cracks and cause pieces to break off
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produced when river erosion and other land processes break down the load into finer particles
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bed load
load which spends all or some of its time on the river bed
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the movement of sediment and load downriver by the rivers current
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light material held in the rivers current by turbulent eddies
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dissolved load is derived from soluble rock and carried in rivers current
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smaller particles of bed load "hop" along the river bead
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larger particles roll along the river bed by the force of the flowing water
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the depositing of leaving of material as the rivers discharge decreases
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when rivers sediment is deposited from still water
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charged ions in the sea water allow clay particles to coagulate together and settle in suspension
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hydraulic radius
measured efficiency of river. cross sectional area / wetted perimeter
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wetted perimeter
the total length of the channel (bed & banks) that are in contact with the water
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cross sectional area of a rivers
width x depth of channel
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a bend in the river, caused by lateral erosion and deposition
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how much a river bends
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little pile where sediment has been deposited, blocking the rivers current, creating friction
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deeper sections in the river bed where erosion predominates
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the fastest flowing path of least resistance
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point bar / slip off slope
deposited feature on the inside bend of a meander made of alluvium
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two diseases that don't match or are uneven
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the build up of sediment
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flood plain
the area around a river which is flooded when the river bursts its banks in a period if intense precipitation
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a pile of alluvium on river banks which prevent flood water from returning to the channel
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river cliff
a steep drop from the banks to the surface to the bed of the river on the outside bend
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deposited material
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under cut
when land is eroded at sea or river, laving unsupported material above
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helicoidal flow
a corkscrew movement that rises and falls in the zone of maximum velocity within the rivers channel
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oxbow lake
a U shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstream cuts off, creating a free standing body of water
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meander migration
the movement of a meander down-valley
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river bluff
a type of broad, rounded cliff that are formed of more resistant rock which are unable to be eroded by the river
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bigger material
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depositional features when form when the river meets the sea or lake, the loss of velocity mean the rivers load is deposited (3 types : bird foot, arcuate, cuspate)
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when deposition of sediment blocks the main channel which splits into smaller channels
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wave erosion
the wearing away of Earth's surfacer by waves crashing into the surface
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a series of mini waterfalls which are slow flowing due to large amount of friction from irregular resistant rocks on steep angles
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a place where water flows over a vertical drop or series of step drops
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plunge pool
formed at the base of the waterfall when rock bashes the river bed and through abrasion it creates a pool
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a steep sided valley where a rivers flows. Normally left behind when a waterfall retreats upstream
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rock layers
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protruding bands
rock that sticks out in a river profile, made of different strata
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turbulent flow
circular current movement of water
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


process by which liquid water transforms into vapour



Card 3


process by which water is lost from a plant through the stoma in its leaves


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Card 4


passage of water into soil. Water drawn into soil by gravity and capillary attraction


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


downward vertical movement of water within a soil. Water enters groundwater


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