Restless Earth


Plate tectonics, fold mountains, earthquakes and volcanoes.

1. What is at the centre of the earth?
Solid iron and nickel core.
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2. What is around the centre of the earth?
Mantle which moves very slowly. Semi molten rock.
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3. What is the outer layer of the earth?
A very thin crust.
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4. What is the crust divided into?
Techtonic plates that float on the mantle.
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5. What are the two types of crust?
Continental and Oceanic.
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6. How is the continental crust compared to the oceanic crust?
The continental crust is thicker and less dense. The oceanic crust is thinner and more dense.
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7. Why are the plates moving?
The mantle underneath is also moving.
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8. What is the place called where the plates meet?
Plate boundries or plate margins.
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9. What are the three types of plate margin?
Destructive margin, constructive margin and conservative margin.
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10. What is a destructive margin?
Where two plates are moving towards eachother.
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11. What happens when a oceanic plate meets a continental plate? What types of plate margin is this?
The denser oceanic plate is forced into the mantle and is destroyed. It can cause volcanoes and ocean trenches. This is a destructive plate margin.
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12. What happens when two continental plates meet?
The two plates smash together, no crust is destoyed. Fold mountains occur.
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13. What happens at a contructive plate boundry?
Two plates are moving away from each other. Magma rises to fill the gap, a new crust is made.
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14. What is a conservative plate boundry and what happens here?
Two plates are moving sideways past eachother, or same direction at different speeds. Crust is not made or destroyed.
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15. When are fold mountains formed?
Destructive plate boundries.
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16. How are fold mountains created?
Two continental plates collide and the sedimentry rock is forced upwards.
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17. Give an example of a fold mountain.
The Alps.
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18. Where else can you also get fold mountains?
Where a continental plate and oceanic plate collide. The oceanic plate is forced under the continental plate.
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19. What are fold mountains?
Areas of high mountains, rocky with steep sides. Often snow and glaciers on peaks and lakes in valleys.
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20. What do humans use fold mountains for?
Farming, hydro-electric power, mining, forestry, tourism.
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21. Explain how farming is used on fold mountains.
High mountains are used for goats, low areas used to grow crops.
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22. Explain how hydroelectric power is produced on fold mountains.
Steep sided mountains and high lakes are used to create power and store water.
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23. Explain how fold mountains are used for mining.
Fold mountains have a source of metal ores. The steep slopes make it difficult so zig zag paths are created.
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24. Explain how fold mountains are used for forestry.
They have a good environment to grow some types of tree. Used for building, fuel and paper.
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25. Explain how fold mountains are used for tourism.
Scenery, in winter people do skiing etc. Tunnels created for easy access and communtication.
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26.Where are volcanoes found?
Destructive and Constructive plate margins. (see flashcard)
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27. How are volcanoes created?
Oceanic plate under continental, melted creating pool of magma, magma rises through cracks in the crust called vents. At constructive plate margins the magma rises though the gap.
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28. What are hotspots?
Places in the mantle that are really hot. Lots of volcanoes form here.
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29. What are composite volcanoes?
Ash and lav. Lava is thick and slow. Steep-sided volcano.
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30. What are shield volcanoes?
Made of only lava, lava is runny and is fast. The lava spreads over a wide area. Low, flat volcano.
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31. What are dome volcanoes?
Made of only lava and the lava is thick. The lava flows slowly and hardens quickly. Steep-side volcano.
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32. What are the signs that a volcano is going to erupt?
Tiny earthquakes, escaping gas and changes in the shape of the volcano.
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33. Why is it important to predict eruptions?
So damage is minimised.
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34. What are Super Volcanoes?
Bigger volcanoes that only develop in afew places on earth. They happen at destructive plate margins or over parts of hot mantle.
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35. How are calderas formed?
Magma rises through cracks to form a magma basin, the pressure causes bulge of the surface, kilometres wide. The bulge cracks creating vents for lava to escape through. The lava erupts and large earthquake. Basin empty and bulge collapes. Big crater.
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36. What happens to the crater (caldera) after eruption?
It can be filled with water to create a large lake.
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37. What are the charactoristics of a supervolcano?
Flat. Cover a large area. Have a caldera (a large crater).
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38. When was the last super volcano?
74000 years ago.
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39. Give an example of a Super Volcano
Yellowstone National Park
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40. What are the global consequences of a super volcano?
Thousands of cubic kilometres of ash, rock and lava into the atmosphere. A thick cloud of super-heated gas will flow from volcano. Ash will block out daylight. Ash will also settle on buildings. Could cause animal extinction and climate change.
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41. Where do earthquakes occur?
All three plate margins.
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42. When does an earthquake happen?
When tension builds up at the plate boundries.
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43. What causes the earthquake?
When the plates jerk past eachother, this releases the tension and energy sending out shock waves.
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44. What are shock waves?
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45. Where do shock waves spread out from?
The focus, where the earthquake starts. Its where the waves are stronger and casue most damage.
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46. What is the epicentre?
Point on the earths suface straight above the focus.
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47. Explain the Richter Scale.
Measured by energy released from an earthquake called the magnitude. Magnitude is measured using a seisometer.
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48. What does the word logarithmic mean?
An earthquake with a magnitude of 5 is ten times more powerful than one of 4.
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49. What is the Mercalli Scale?
Measures the effect of an earthquake. Effects are measured by eye witnesses for observations. 1 to 12.
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50. What is a tsunami?
A series of enormous waves caused when huge amounts of water get displaced. (See case study for more information)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


2. What is around the centre of the earth?


Mantle which moves very slowly. Semi molten rock.

Card 3


3. What is the outer layer of the earth?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


4. What is the crust divided into?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


5. What are the two types of crust?


Preview of the front of card 5
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