research methods (issues and debates)

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  • Created by: katie
  • Created on: 05-06-15 14:27
outline lab experiments (4)
1)artificial environment 2)IV manipulated to measure effect on DV 3)control over extraneous variables as best as possible 4)cause and effect conclusions drawn
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state two strengths of lab experiments
1)reliability: controls ensure repeatability 2)scientific method as controls and hypotheses generated
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state two weaknesses of lab experiments
1)low task validity - not showing real behaviour (features must be removed from real life situation in order to isolate the IV and DV) 2)low ecological validity
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what is the study to go with this method?
loftus and palmer
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outline field experiments (4)
1)natural environment of the participants 2)IV manipulated to measure effect on DV 3)limited control over extraneous variables 4)attempts to establish cause and effect as far as possible
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state two strengths of field experiments
1)some reliability as there are still controls, however limited 2)ecological validity: normal behaviour is observed
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state two weaknesses of field experiments
1)low task validity: features must be removed from real life situations in order to isolate variables 2)lack of reliability: harder to control extraneous variables so cause and effect is not conclusive
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what is the study to go with this method?
yuille and cutshall
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outline natural experiments (3)
1)naturally occuring IV. effect on DV of natural changes to the IV are measured 2)natural environment because this is where the IV would naturally occur 3)attempts to control other variables but it is difficult because nothing is being manipulated
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state two strengths of natural experiments
1)claim scientific status because still some control and cause and effect attempts to be established 2)valid task and environment
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state two weaknesses of natural experiments
1)hard to isolate a single variable of the IV because behaviours are complex 2)lack of controls: can't be conclusive about cause and effect
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what is the study to go with this method?
charlton et al
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outline observations (4)
1)usually natural environment 2)can be participant or non participant (whether or not researcher is directly involved in the situation) 3)can be covert or overt 4)usually produces qualitative data: detailed transcripts or recordings
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state two strengths of observations
1)inter-rater reliability can be used in the analysis of the data because transcripts or recordings 2)natural setting so ecological validity
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state two weaknesses of observations
1)if non-participant, may effect pps' behaviour bc 'strange' researcher presence 2)if participant may miss details because hard to gather all details and take part at the same time
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what is the study to go with this method?
charlton et al
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outline questionnaires (2)
1)open or closed questions: primarily closed with tick boxes or a rating scale that produce quantitative data 2)set list of questions that is given to large amounts of people and their responses are compared 3)
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state two strengths of questionnaires
1)likely to be valid because not face to face/anonymous so feel they can be honest in their responses 2)reliable: if standardised are easily replicable
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state two weaknesses of questionnaires
1)closed questions can restrict people in their answers, thus reducing the validity of the responses 2)notoriously low response rate, sample can end up very limited
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what is the study to go with this method?
loftus and palmer
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outline interviews (2)
1)set of questions asked face to face to people 2)can be structured (follow a set list of questions), semi-structured (have a set list but are free to follow up answers) or unstructured (general direction determined but any questions)
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state two strengths of interviews
1)structured interviews allow easy comparisons and are replicable to test for reliability 2)unstructured interviews allow for other topics to be explored in detail and to find new areas of study
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state two weaknesses of interviews
1)unstructured interviews don't have set questions and so are hard to compare. they don't follow a replicable structure 2)validity questionned as may give socially desirable responses because it is face-to-face
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what is the study to go with this method?
brown et al
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outline case studies (4)
1)in depth and detailed research about one person or a small group of people 2)picks participants bc they are unique in some way that is relevent to psychology 3)uses different research methods: interviews, observations 4)generate qualitative data
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state two strengths of case studies
1)different research methods used meaning that data can be checked using diff methods so valid data 2)lots of data is gathered that is detailed which means a valid understanding of the individual(s) can be gained
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state two weaknesses of case studies
1)not replicable: usually chosen to study bc is unique situation/person that will not arise again 2)not generalisable: 1 specific individual, their behaviour may not apply to everyone else
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what is the study to go with this method?
Little Albert
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aim of Little Albert
to see if a phobia to a neutral stimulus could be classically conditioned in an infant
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procedure of Little Albert
9 month old infant. shown various stimuli: white rat, rabbit, masks. he showed no fear to any of them. cried when hammer hit a steel bar. over 7 weeks hit hammar on bar whilst showing Albert a white rat.
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results of Little Albert
every time he was presented with both stimuli, Albert cried. over time he cried when the white rat alone was present without the noise from the hammar on the steel bar: he feared the rat alone.
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outline correlations (3)
1)correlations can be used when there is quantitative data where there are two sets of scores for each participant 2)positive correlation or negative correlation 3)shows a relationship between the two variables, not cause and effect
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state two strengths of correlations
1)can see relationships that would not have otherwise be noted: find new areas to study further 2)quantitative data used so the original experiment can be likely tested for reliability, meaning the correlation is ensured to be reliable
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state two weaknesses of correlations
1)only two variables, there could be a third extraneous variable that effected them both 2)doesn't show cause and effect
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what is the study to go with this method?
Cramer et al
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aim of cramer et al
to see the relationship between young people's use of defense mechanisms and their state of identity (to what extent they have a sense of who they are)
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procedure of cramer et al
Q-sort to see identity status: achieved status - commitment to values and goals. diffused status - no commitment. use of defence mechanisms found out by a TAT: had to tell a story based on picture card (denial = missing out obvious characters/events)
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results of cramer et al
positive correlation between use of defence mechanisms and identity state. most crisis in identity = more use of defence mechanisms
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outline content analysis
method of analysing written or recorded info from the media. sources from television, newspapers. categories determined by the researcher that are common in both sources of data and using these, tallies up how often in each article. quant data.
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state two strengths of content analysis
1)can be replicated using the same categories to check for reliability/inter-rater reliability 2)quantitative data means inferential statistical tests can be carried out to see if differences found are significant
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state two weaknesses of content analysis
1)subjectivity: researcher defines the categories and operationalises them. other researchers may not agree 2)limited use - can only use them in specific situations/can only use sources that are already available
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what is the study to go with this method?
Cumberbatch & Gauntlett
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aim of cumberbatch and gauntless
to see how often smoking, drugs and alcohol were referenced/shown in TV programmes watched by 10-15 year olds
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procedure of cumberbatch and gauntlett
the majority of the programmes looked at were soap operas and they were all broadcast before the 9pm watershed. was noted down every time smoking, drugs or alcohol were pictured or referenced. looked at 256 programmes in total.
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results of cumberbatch and gauntlett
alcohol was referenced most. only 4% of the programmes didn't mention alcohol, drugs or smoking. large story arcs centred on drug abuse
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Card 2

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state two strengths of lab experiments

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1)reliability: controls ensure repeatability 2)scientific method as controls and hypotheses generated

Card 3

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state two weaknesses of lab experiments

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is the study to go with this method?

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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outline field experiments (4)

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