Reproductive System - AaP

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: mark23jc
  • Created on: 11-05-16 17:06
Where is the Testes located?
Within the scrotum which is a thin skin and smooth muscle layer (m. Dartos)
1 of 76
What is the externally visible midline called?
Raphe
2 of 76
What happens to the Dartos and Cremaster when it is cold?
They contract and so raising the Testes.
3 of 76
What is the Tested covered in?
TUNICA ALBUGINEA which is a fibrous connective tissue.
4 of 76
Where do testes migrate through?
Testes migrate through the abdominal wall via the inguinal canal to the cooler scr
5 of 76
What is the function of the testis?
Exocrine = produce sperm. Endocrine = produce hormone (androgens).
6 of 76
Define spermatogenesis
Process of sperm mutation which involves both mitosis and meiosis.
7 of 76
How long does spermatatogenesis take place?
74 DAYS
8 of 76
What is spermatogonium?
cell produced at an early stage in the formation of spermatozoa, formed in the wall of a seminiferous tubule and giving rise by mitosis to spermatocytes.
9 of 76
Where does Spermatogenesis take place?
Occurs in the the Seminiferous tubules.
10 of 76
What are the cells involved in Spemratogenesis?
Interstitial / Leydig Cells , Sustentacular / Sertoli Cells , Germ Cells.
11 of 76
What is the function of Leydig Cells?
Found in the surrounding connective tissue and it's role is to secrete testosterone
12 of 76
What is the function of Sustenacular?
Found in the seminiferous tubule and its role is to support developing germ cells.
13 of 76
Name the products if spermatogenesis.
Spermatogonia divide by mitosis --> primary spermatocytes, undergoes meiosis --> Secondary spermatocyte --> Spermatid, matures --> Spermatozoan (sperm)
14 of 76
Where does the final maturation of sperm occur?
Epididymis. Usually take 12-16 days to travel.
15 of 76
What does the ductus deferens enlarge to?
Enlarges to form ampulla. Joins the seminal vesicle duct to from ejaculatory duct --> empties into the urethra.
16 of 76
What is Vasectomy?
The process of the vas deferens being cut.
17 of 76
What does vasectomy do to *********** and sperm production?
Sperm production continues however sperm is broken down and absorbed by the body. Ejaculation still occurs but now contains only seminalfluid.
18 of 76
What is the structure and function of Seminal Vesicles?
Sac shaped that contains coiled tubes. Produce 60% of seminal fluid volume.--> Secretes thick/mucous like nutrients for sperm. Fibrinogn for coagulation and prostaglandins for uterine contractions.
19 of 76
What joins the ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct?
Seminal Vesicles
20 of 76
What does the Prostate secrete?
Thin/Milky 30% seminal fluid. High pH to neutralise acidic environment. Contains clotting factors.
21 of 76
In percentage, how much seminal fluid does the bulbourethral gland secrete?
5%. It also secretes mucous just prior *********** to lubricate and neutralize the contents of the urethra.
22 of 76
Outline the Semen constituents and their values.
Seminal Vesicles = 64% , Prostate = 30% , Testes = 5% , Bulbourethral = 1%
23 of 76
What is the Male urethra lined with?
It is lined with uroepithelium
24 of 76
What is the dual purpose of the Male Urethra?
Urinary and reproductive
25 of 76
What are the parts of the Male urethra?
Prostatic urethra, Bulbar Urethra, Spongy urethra, External urethral orifice
26 of 76
What are the two types of of erectile tissue?
Corpus Spongiosum and Corpus Cavernosum.
27 of 76
Which of the two erectile tissue are more deep?
Corpus spongiosum
28 of 76
What is the function of the Corpus Cavernosum?
It becomes engorged with blood for rigidity. It is also highly insensitive.
29 of 76
What is the function of the Corpus Spongiosum?
To remain soft to allow urethra to remain open. It also terminates as Glans Penis and is highly sensitive.
30 of 76
What are the 3 E's in relation to Males?
Erection, Emission, Ejaculation.
31 of 76
Where does the Pudendal Nerve originate?
From the sacral region of spinal cord --> sacral nerves from S2, S3, S4
32 of 76
What is an erection?
Parasympathetic Stimulation.
33 of 76
What happens to the smooth muscle , arterial flow and bulbourethral glands during Erection?
Smooth muscle of erectile tissue relaxes. Increased in arterial flow, BUG secretes mucous.
34 of 76
Why is there a reduced venous return during erection?
Because this causes an increase in Paraysympathetic in sinusoids --> causing erectile tissues to become turgid.
35 of 76
What is emission?
Sympathetic Stimulation --> Smooth muscle in ductus deferens propels sperm and testicular secretions --> into the ampulla --> prostatic urethra.
36 of 76
What happens to the smooth muscle in the prostate and seminal vesicles during emissions?
They contract --> release secretions into the prostatic urethra.
37 of 76
Where does the semen accumulate?
In the prostatic urethra --> sensory action potentials via pudendal nerve --> spinal cord.
38 of 76
What is Ejaculation?
Sympathetic response.
39 of 76
What happens to the Urinary sphincter during ***********?
They constrict to prevent *********** from going the other way round.
40 of 76
What causes the somatic response of ***********?
The pudendal nerve.
41 of 76
What happens during the somatic response?
Rhythmic contraction of skeletal muscles of the base of the penis as this forces semen out of the urethra.
42 of 76
What is the Vagina lined with?
Stratified squamous non keratinised epithelium. The small glands secretes lubricant.
43 of 76
Where is the cervix?
Part of the uterus and connects via the uterine Isthmus. It is usually a flattened tube with anterior and posterior lips.
44 of 76
What happens to the Cervix during childbirth?
Dilates during childbirth and around ovulation it looses a little bit to allow menstrual flow.
45 of 76
What is the function of the Cervix?
To transport sperm towards the uterus.
46 of 76
What is the ectocervix?
Part of where the cervix projects into the ******.
47 of 76
What does the Cervix produce?
Cervical mucus: 90% water and content varies depending on cycle stage. It nourishes or negates.
48 of 76
After menstruation?
Infertile mucus to block
49 of 76
Around ovulation?
Fertile mucus to nourish
50 of 76
After fertilisation?
Infection control to plug.
51 of 76
What is the function of the Uterus?
It is Anteflexed = body points forward and slightly upward and cervix points down and back.
52 of 76
What is the body of the uterus known as?
Fundus.
53 of 76
What are the uterine tissue layers?
Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium
54 of 76
What is the endometrium?
It is vascular and glandular. It contains the Stratum Compactum then the Stratum spongiosum then the Stratum basale.
55 of 76
Myometrium?
3 Layers of smooth muscle.
56 of 76
Perimetrium?
Peritoneum
57 of 76
What is the fallopian tube also known as?
Uterine tubes or Oviducts.
58 of 76
What is the loose connective tissue in the uterine tubes?
Lamina propria which completes mucosa.
59 of 76
Uterine tubes
Columnar, ciliated epithelium where the cilia and peristalsis move ova along tube.
60 of 76
What is the primary follicles surrounded with?
Granulosa cells.
61 of 76
What causes the increase in granulosa cells?
It increases as maturation proceeds.
62 of 76
What do granulosa cells secrete?
They secrete oestrogen rich fluid into the space surrounding the oocyte known as the Antrum.
63 of 76
What are Theca cells?
When the outer layer of granulosa cells condenses --> these theca layers splits into external and internal theca.
64 of 76
What are the walls of the bladder starting from deep to superficial?
Transitional Epithelium --> Connective tissue (lamina propria) --> Smooth Muscle Layer --> Connective Tissue (Adventitia)
65 of 76
What are detrusor muscle and where are they found?
They are smooth muscle coat of criss-cross fibres.
66 of 76
What are mucosa folded into?
They are folded into rugae and lined with transtional epithelium
67 of 76
What is the trigone?
It is found between ureteral orifices & internal urethral meatus. It is a smooth mucosa and is very sensitive. (stretches to a point then signals need for voiding.
68 of 76
What supports the external sphincter?
Levator ani.
69 of 76
What is the blood supply of the bladder?
Superior and inferior vesical arteries - from internal iliac artery.
70 of 76
Where is the drainage go to?
Venous drainage to internal iliac vein.
71 of 76
What is the micturition reflex?
Bladder sends impulses to spinal cord via parasympathetic afferents. Reflex returns to bladder by parasympathetic efferents (pelvic nerve).
72 of 76
What happens to the detrusor muscle when the impulse reaches it?
Detrusor muscle contracts and relaxes the internal sphincter causing urination.
73 of 76
When does the control of micturition take place?
Approximates around 2 years of age.
74 of 76
What happens if cortical inhibition of the parasympathetic reflex is removed?
External urethral sphincter relaxes. --> midflow is NOT stopped so you pee
75 of 76
What happens during active micturition?
External sphincter relaxes and so abdominal muscles contract.
76 of 76

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the externally visible midline called?

Back

Raphe

Card 3

Front

What happens to the Dartos and Cremaster when it is cold?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the Tested covered in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where do testes migrate through?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Medicine resources:

See all Medicine resources »See all Reproductive System - AaP resources »