Reproductive System - AaP

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  • Created by: mark23jc
  • Created on: 11-05-16 17:06
Where is the Testes located?
Within the scrotum which is a thin skin and smooth muscle layer (m. Dartos)
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What is the externally visible midline called?
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What happens to the Dartos and Cremaster when it is cold?
They contract and so raising the Testes.
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What is the Tested covered in?
TUNICA ALBUGINEA which is a fibrous connective tissue.
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Where do testes migrate through?
Testes migrate through the abdominal wall via the inguinal canal to the cooler scr
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What is the function of the testis?
Exocrine = produce sperm. Endocrine = produce hormone (androgens).
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Define spermatogenesis
Process of sperm mutation which involves both mitosis and meiosis.
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How long does spermatatogenesis take place?
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What is spermatogonium?
cell produced at an early stage in the formation of spermatozoa, formed in the wall of a seminiferous tubule and giving rise by mitosis to spermatocytes.
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Where does Spermatogenesis take place?
Occurs in the the Seminiferous tubules.
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What are the cells involved in Spemratogenesis?
Interstitial / Leydig Cells , Sustentacular / Sertoli Cells , Germ Cells.
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What is the function of Leydig Cells?
Found in the surrounding connective tissue and it's role is to secrete testosterone
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What is the function of Sustenacular?
Found in the seminiferous tubule and its role is to support developing germ cells.
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Name the products if spermatogenesis.
Spermatogonia divide by mitosis --> primary spermatocytes, undergoes meiosis --> Secondary spermatocyte --> Spermatid, matures --> Spermatozoan (sperm)
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Where does the final maturation of sperm occur?
Epididymis. Usually take 12-16 days to travel.
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What does the ductus deferens enlarge to?
Enlarges to form ampulla. Joins the seminal vesicle duct to from ejaculatory duct --> empties into the urethra.
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What is Vasectomy?
The process of the vas deferens being cut.
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What does vasectomy do to *********** and sperm production?
Sperm production continues however sperm is broken down and absorbed by the body. *********** still occurs but now contains only seminalfluid.
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What is the structure and function of Seminal Vesicles?
Sac shaped that contains coiled tubes. Produce 60% of seminal fluid volume.--> Secretes thick/mucous like nutrients for sperm. Fibrinogn for coagulation and prostaglandins for uterine contractions.
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What joins the ductus deferens to form the ejaculatory duct?
Seminal Vesicles
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What does the Prostate secrete?
Thin/Milky 30% seminal fluid. High pH to neutralise acidic environment. Contains clotting factors.
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In percentage, how much seminal fluid does the bulbourethral gland secrete?
5%. It also secretes mucous just prior *********** to lubricate and neutralize the contents of the urethra.
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Outline the Semen constituents and their values.
Seminal Vesicles = 64% , Prostate = 30% , Testes = 5% , Bulbourethral = 1%
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What is the Male urethra lined with?
It is lined with uroepithelium
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What is the dual purpose of the Male Urethra?
Urinary and reproductive
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What are the parts of the Male urethra?
Prostatic urethra, Bulbar Urethra, Spongy urethra, External urethral orifice
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What are the two types of of erectile tissue?
Corpus Spongiosum and Corpus Cavernosum.
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Which of the two erectile tissue are more deep?
Corpus spongiosum
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What is the function of the Corpus Cavernosum?
It becomes engorged with blood for rigidity. It is also highly insensitive.
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What is the function of the Corpus Spongiosum?
To remain soft to allow urethra to remain open. It also terminates as Glans Penis and is highly sensitive.
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What are the 3 E's in relation to Males?
Erection, Emission, ***********.
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Where does the Pudendal Nerve originate?
From the sacral region of spinal cord --> sacral nerves from S2, S3, S4
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What is an erection?
Parasympathetic Stimulation.
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What happens to the smooth muscle , arterial flow and bulbourethral glands during Erection?
Smooth muscle of erectile tissue relaxes. Increased in arterial flow, BUG secretes mucous.
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Why is there a reduced venous return during erection?
Because this causes an increase in Paraysympathetic in sinusoids --> causing erectile tissues to become turgid.
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What is emission?
Sympathetic Stimulation --> Smooth muscle in ductus deferens propels sperm and testicular secretions --> into the ampulla --> prostatic urethra.
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What happens to the smooth muscle in the prostate and seminal vesicles during emissions?
They contract --> release secretions into the prostatic urethra.
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Where does the semen accumulate?
In the prostatic urethra --> sensory action potentials via pudendal nerve --> spinal cord.
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What is ***********?
Sympathetic response.
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What happens to the Urinary sphincter during ***********?
They constrict to prevent *********** from going the other way round.
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What causes the somatic response of ***********?
The pudendal nerve.
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What happens during the somatic response?
Rhythmic contraction of skeletal muscles of the base of the penis as this forces semen out of the urethra.
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What is the Vagina lined with?
Stratified squamous non keratinised epithelium. The small glands secretes lubricant.
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Where is the cervix?
Part of the uterus and connects via the uterine Isthmus. It is usually a flattened tube with anterior and posterior lips.
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What happens to the Cervix during childbirth?
Dilates during childbirth and around ovulation it looses a little bit to allow menstrual flow.
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What is the function of the Cervix?
To transport sperm towards the uterus.
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What is the ectocervix?
Part of where the cervix projects into the vagina.
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What does the Cervix produce?
Cervical mucus: 90% water and content varies depending on cycle stage. It nourishes or negates.
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After menstruation?
Infertile mucus to block
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Around ovulation?
Fertile mucus to nourish
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After fertilisation?
Infection control to plug.
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What is the function of the Uterus?
It is Anteflexed = body points forward and slightly upward and cervix points down and back.
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What is the body of the uterus known as?
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What are the uterine tissue layers?
Endometrium, Myometrium, Perimetrium
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What is the endometrium?
It is vascular and glandular. It contains the Stratum Compactum then the Stratum spongiosum then the Stratum basale.
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3 Layers of smooth muscle.
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What is the fallopian tube also known as?
Uterine tubes or Oviducts.
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What is the loose connective tissue in the uterine tubes?
Lamina propria which completes mucosa.
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Uterine tubes
Columnar, ciliated epithelium where the cilia and peristalsis move ova along tube.
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What is the primary follicles surrounded with?
Granulosa cells.
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What causes the increase in granulosa cells?
It increases as maturation proceeds.
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What do granulosa cells secrete?
They secrete oestrogen rich fluid into the space surrounding the oocyte known as the Antrum.
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What are Theca cells?
When the outer layer of granulosa cells condenses --> these theca layers splits into external and internal theca.
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What are the walls of the bladder starting from deep to superficial?
Transitional Epithelium --> Connective tissue (lamina propria) --> Smooth Muscle Layer --> Connective Tissue (Adventitia)
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What are detrusor muscle and where are they found?
They are smooth muscle coat of criss-cross fibres.
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What are mucosa folded into?
They are folded into rugae and lined with transtional epithelium
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What is the trigone?
It is found between ureteral orifices & internal urethral meatus. It is a smooth mucosa and is very sensitive. (stretches to a point then signals need for voiding.
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What supports the external sphincter?
Levator ani.
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What is the blood supply of the bladder?
Superior and inferior vesical arteries - from internal iliac artery.
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Where is the drainage go to?
Venous drainage to internal iliac vein.
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What is the micturition reflex?
Bladder sends impulses to spinal cord via parasympathetic afferents. Reflex returns to bladder by parasympathetic efferents (pelvic nerve).
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What happens to the detrusor muscle when the impulse reaches it?
Detrusor muscle contracts and relaxes the internal sphincter causing urination.
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When does the control of micturition take place?
Approximates around 2 years of age.
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What happens if cortical inhibition of the parasympathetic reflex is removed?
External urethral sphincter relaxes. --> midflow is NOT stopped so you pee
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What happens during active micturition?
External sphincter relaxes and so abdominal muscles contract.
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Card 2


What is the externally visible midline called?



Card 3


What happens to the Dartos and Cremaster when it is cold?


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Card 4


What is the Tested covered in?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Where do testes migrate through?


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