Radioactivity and Particles

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  • Created by: Ellie
  • Created on: 18-04-13 18:42
What is the nucleas of an atom made up of?
protons and neutrons
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What orbits the nucleas?
electrons
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What is an isotope?
atoms with a different number of neutrons
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What happens if a nucleas is unstable?
it emits radiation
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What is radioactive decay?
When the nucleas of unstable isotopes break down at random
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what happens when the nucleas decays?
It splits out one or more types of radiation so the nucleas changes to a different element
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Where does background radiation come from?
earth space and living things
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What does nuclear radiation cause?
Ionisation
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Link radiation to ionisation
The further the radiation can penetrate the less ionising it is
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What are alpha particles?
Helium nuclei
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What are beta particles?
Electrons
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What are gamma rays?
EM waves with a short wavelength
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What happens in a nuclear equation of alpha emission?
atomic number decreases by 2 and the mass number decreases by 4
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What happens in a nuclear equation of beta emission?
atomic number increases by 1 and the mass number stays the same
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What happens in a nuclear equation of gamma emission?
It stays the same
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What is a half life?
the time taken for half of the radioactive atoms now present to decay
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What does a short half life mean
lots of nuclei decay quickly
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State a use of nuclear radiation
Medical tracers use beta or gamma radiation, gamma radiation is used in industrial tracers,radioactive dating of rocks and specimins
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What are the risks of Nuclear radiation?
Alpha radiation will do a lot of localised damage inside the body if inhaled. It can cause mutations and cancer
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How can you safely dispose of radioactive waste?
sealed in glass blocks put in metal canisters then buried
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What is nuclear fission?
The splitting of an atom which releases energy
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How are nuclear power stations powered?
Nuclear reactors carry out nuclear fissions in a controlled chain reaction
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What is the critical mass?
The smallest amount of uranium needed to keep a chain reaction going
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In a nuclear reactor what is the moderators function?
Slowing down the neutrons so they can collide and sustain the chain reaction
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In a nuclear reactor what is the coolants function?
Extracting heat from the reactor
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In a nuclear reactor what is the Control rods function?
limiting the rate of fission by absorbing excess neutrons
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What orbits the nucleas?

Back

electrons

Card 3

Front

What is an isotope?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens if a nucleas is unstable?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is radioactive decay?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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Comments

Julia

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great resource, but bad spelling!

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