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What does the Chronicle of Fredegar record?
Capture and execution of Queen Brunhild
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What does the Chronicle of Fredegar say about execution of Queen Brunhild?
"She was then torn to piees by the hooves and the pace of the galloping horse"
2 of 244
Where does the Chronicle of Fredegar borrow the story of Brunhild's death from?
Life of Saint Columbanus
3 of 244
What did Saint Columbanus command Brunhild's grandson Theuderic to do?
Abandon his concubines
4 of 244
How does the Chronicle of Fredegar describe Brunhild's grandson concubines incident?
"the old serpent entered the mind of the king's grandmother Brunhild (as she was a second Jezebel)... In fact, she feared that if Theuderic had the concubines ejected and set a queen over the court, he would deprive her of the dignities and honors.."
5 of 244
How did Gregory of Tours see Brunhild's role?
Legitimate part as an avenger of her sister
6 of 244
When was Gregory of Tours writing?
Sixth century
7 of 244
Where was Fredegar writing?
8 of 244
When was Fredegar writing?
More than a generation later
9 of 244
How was Brunhild viewed by the time of Fredegar?
Bloodthirsty and unscrupulous woman
10 of 244
What was a difference between Gregory of Tours and Fredegar?
Fredegar knew how Brunhild's career ended - her murder at the hands of her nephew and the feud that rent Merovingian politics under her grandsons and nephew
11 of 244
What sources did Fredegund have access to?
Queen pitted against Columbanus (Jonas' life of Columbanus) and pitted against Desiderius in Sisebut's life
12 of 244
What do both the life of Columbanus and of Sisebut subsume Brunhild into?
Character of the biblical Jezebel
13 of 244
Wife of Ahab, caused the death of prophets and holey men
14 of 244
Which motif did Gregory of Tours find useful?
Vengeance motif
15 of 244
Which idea did Fredegar use against Brunhild?
Idea of women as peacekeepers, recalled the catalogue of Brunhild's supposed murders
16 of 244
What did Pauline Stafford view Brunhild as partly a victim of?
"the perennial need for scapegoats"
17 of 244
What does Pauline Stafford see as the problem associated with Brunhild and Fredegund?
"Truth is distorted by bias, propaganda, gossip and sheer antifeminism"
18 of 244
What could Brunhild's ability to cement international alliances not alter?
Fact that regency was not a right but a temporary privilege
19 of 244
Visigothic princess
20 of 244
How was Brunhild's kinship link with the Visigoths severed?
Murder of Liuva II in 603
21 of 244
When was Brunhild born?
22 of 244
Who sought Brunhildin marriage?
23 of 244
When Sigibert married Brunhild what was he apparently continuing?
Austrasian tradition of foreign dynastic marriages
24 of 244
When did Brunhild marry Sigibert?
25 of 244
What happened regarding Brunhild's Arianism?
Swiftly abandoned it
26 of 244
When did Childebert reach his majority?
27 of 244
What happened to Brunhild's position when Childebert reached his majority?
Became a commanding one. Dispensed with tutor and took over guidance of her son
28 of 244
What did Pope Gregory the Great praise Brunhild for?
"both the government of the realm and the education of your son"
29 of 244
As a consort Brunhild, like other sixth century queens, probably used her influence in episcopal elections. Give an example, according to Venatius, of this.
Gregory of Tours himself
30 of 244
Give a better documented example of Brunhild's influence at episcopal elections.
Intervened at Rodez in 584 - her influence invoked by Count Innocentius in power struggle in the nearbycity of Javois
31 of 244
What did Brunhild's support do when Count Innocentius transferred his interests to the see of Rodex?
Secured him the bishopric in an election which had fierce competition
32 of 244
What does Janet Nelson suggest about Brunhild's involvement regarding Count Innocentius at Rodez?
Continuing efforts to secure restitution of her sister Galswinth's morning-gift
33 of 244
Could bishops achieve concerted action or moral reform without royal scholarship?
No, as Pope Gregory understood when he directed his appeals to Brunhild
34 of 244
Where is the collaboration of queen, bishop and popea apparent?
Brunhild's foundations at Autun
35 of 244
What does Janet Nelson say about Brunhild, from a modern day perspective?
"Brunhild then, had not been born bad, but nor had she exactly had badness thrust upon her."
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What does Janet Nelson remind about Brunhild, from the perspective of her near contemporaries?
"in the hagiographer's terms, she deserved her reputation and had indeed challenged the authority of a saint and opposed heavenly by earthly power"
37 of 244
What did Gregory I write to Brunhild in November 602 regarding her foundation at Autun?
£we have indulged privileges to those places for the peace and protection of the inhabitants, as you wished.."
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Who were presented as 'good' Queens?
Clothild, AEthelberga, Saint AEthelthryth
39 of 244
When did Clothild die?
40 of 244
Who was Clothild married to?
Pagan king Clovis of the Franks
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When did Clovis die?
42 of 244
Who encouraged Clovis to convert to Christianity?
43 of 244
After the death of Clovis, where did Clothild go?
Became a nun in Tours
44 of 244
Did Clothild remain politically active after the death of her husband?
Yes, not necessarily in a good way
45 of 244
Who was AEthelberga?
Daughter of King AEthelberht of Kent
46 of 244
Who did AEthelberga marry?
Pagan king Edwin of Northumbria
47 of 244
When did Edwin of Northumbria die?
48 of 244
The Pope wrote a letter to AEthelberga. What did it discuss?
Encouraged Edwin to convert
49 of 244
How much does Bede tell us about AEthelberga?
50 of 244
When did Saint AEthelthryth die?
51 of 244
Who was AEthelthryth married to?
King Egfrith of Northumbria
52 of 244
Did AEthelthryth consumate her marriage?
53 of 244
After how many years of marriage did AEthelthryth become a nun at Coldingham?
12 years
54 of 244
Where did Saint AEthelthryth go after being a nun at Coldingham?
Nun at Ely
55 of 244
What needs to be considered regarding Saint AEthelthryth?
If she was actually a successful queen
56 of 244
What does Gregory of Tours say that Clothild said about Clovis' gods in order to secure first son's baptism?
"The gods you worship are nothing, and they will be unable to help themselves or any one else."
57 of 244
Did Clothild's second child die?
58 of 244
What does Gregory of Tours describe Clothild as doing?
Asking saint Remi, bishop of Rheims, to summon Clovis and urge him to introduce king to word of salvation.
59 of 244
What does Gregory of Tours say that Clovis said to Saint Remi?
"I gladly hear you, most holy father; but there remains one thing: the people who followv me cannot endure to abandon their gods; but I shall go and speak to them"
60 of 244
What does Gregory of Tours say happened when Clovis went to speak to his people?
All the people cried out together, bishop rejoiced and bade them to ready the baptismal font
61 of 244
What does Bede call the chapter about AEthelberga aiding the conversion of her husband?
62 of 244
What does Pope Boniface advise AEthelberga to do?
"inflame the coldness of his heart b the knowledge of the Holy Ghost"
63 of 244
What is another name for AEthelthryth?
64 of 244
How does Bede describe AEthelthryth's viriginity?
"... that she had not been defiled by familiarity with men"
65 of 244
According to which contemporary was Brunhild quite a good queen?
Gregory of Tours
66 of 244
How does Gregory of Tours describe Brunhild?
"This young woman was elegant in all that she did, lovely to look at, chaste and decorous in her behaviour, wise in her generation and of good address."
67 of 244
Who wrote flattering poetry about Brunhild?
Venatius Fortunatus
68 of 244
What did the letters of praise from the Pope for Brunhild say?
Praised her support for the church and the mission to the Anglo-Saxons
69 of 244
What makes a good queen?
Sources, approval, effective/successful
70 of 244
'Good' Queen - Sources
Our sources clearly have very biased ideas about what makes a good queen
71 of 244
'Good' Queen - Approval
Was there more to being a good queen than attracting the approval of churchmen and poets?
72 of 244
'Good' Queen - Effective/Successful
The use of effective or successful might be better quantifiers
73 of 244
Murder at whose command cut short the retirement of Chilperic I's repudiated wife Audovera?
Chilperic himself
74 of 244
Whose consort was Fredegund?
75 of 244
What happened to Chilperic?
Saw her enemies triumph and was exiled after her husband's death
76 of 244
What is a notable contrast between Fredegund and her enemy, the Bishop of Rouen?
As Pauline Stafford lays out, he would always remain a bishop but once she lost the security of husband and son 'she lost all'
77 of 244
What did Leudast accuse Fredegund of having done?
Committed adultery
78 of 244
How is Fredegund's husband described as reacting to Leudast's adultery claims?
"relatively moderately" (Gradowicz-Pancer)
79 of 244
How did Fredegund show independent power regarding Leudast?
Arranges his death
80 of 244
How does Gregory of Tours describe the death of Leudast?
"fitting end"
81 of 244
Why is it unsurprising that Gregory of Tours describes Leudast's death as fitting?
Gregory of Tours alleges that Leudast "began to accuse me falsely"
82 of 244
Who were often victims of medieval society?
Widows and orphans as lacked the protection offered most effectively by family group
83 of 244
Could Fredegund rely entirely on sexual power and seduction?
84 of 244
What did Fredegund resort to?
Ecclesiastical protection and kinship when Chilperic died in 584
85 of 244
How old was Fredegund's son when Chilperic died?
Barely four months old
86 of 244
Who supported Fredegund in establishing the regency of her son?
Bishop of Paris and the nobility of the kinggdom
87 of 244
What happened when Landeric fell in battle?
Fredegund took command of the army, following the tradition of earlier barbarian queens - led to victory
88 of 244
Even though Fredegund would take an axe to kill troublemakers and personally administered poison to critics what did Fredegund prefer?
Delegate the murder of troublesome ecclesiasticals to others
89 of 244
When did Fredegund come to terms with Gunthram?
90 of 244
What were Fredegund's terms with Gunthram?
Accepted him as Clothar's godfather and protector
91 of 244
When Fredegund died in 597 how old was she?
Probably no more than fifty years old
92 of 244
What is the issue with the queen's initial offer to her husband of sexual services?
Could only serve as a powerbase as long as she retained affection
93 of 244
Who is probably the best documented case of a king's passion giving a consort long term political significance?
94 of 244
When did Clovis' son King Clothar I die?
95 of 244
How was the kingdom divided after the death of Clothar I?
Between five sons who began squabbling
96 of 244
Who were the half-brother ons of Clothar I who were fierce rivals?
Sigibert and Chilperic
97 of 244
Who did Sigibert marry?
98 of 244
Who did Chilperic marry?
Brunhild's sister Galswinth
99 of 244
Who did Chilperic have murdered, before moving on to servant girl Fredegud?
100 of 244
Was there hostility between Brunhild and Fredegund?
Yes, from the start
101 of 244
How does Gregory of Tours portray Fredegund?
Savage, unhinged psychopath
102 of 244
Why could Gregory of Tours not condemn Fredegund explicitly?
She was still alive when he wrote
103 of 244
How does Gregory of Tours indirectly criticise Fredegund?
Relates a number of her actions and lets the facts speak for themselves. Compares her actions to those of brunhild
104 of 244
When did the civil war between Sigibert and Chilperic reach climax?
575 when Chilperic and Fredegund trapped in Tournai
105 of 244
What did two of Fredegund's men do to Sigibert?
Carried knives smeared with posion, pretended had something to discuss with him but instead struck him - died soon after
106 of 244
What happened after the death of Sigibert?
Chilperic and Fredegund advance out of Tournai
107 of 244
Did Chilperic and Fredegund treat Sigibert's body with respect?
108 of 244
Confusion in Paris. Sigibert's nobles seized his son Childebert and proclaimed king. Who did they take Childebert away from?
109 of 244
Who led Sigibert's nobles after his death?
Duke Gundovald
110 of 244
What happened when Chilperic captured Paris?
Took Brunhild prisoner and exiled her
111 of 244
Who married their aunt Brunhild
Chilperic's son Merovech
112 of 244
What happened when Chilperic discovered Merovech had married Brunhild?
Separated them
113 of 244
Where did Childebert's supporters capture?
Soissons, driving out Fredegund
114 of 244
Whose fate might the queens have remembered?
Theudechild, widow of King Charibert
115 of 244
Who was chief source for Brunhild's life up to 591?
Gregory of Tours
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Did Gregory of Tours have unfavourable comments to make about her?
117 of 244
How does Gregory of Tours introduce Brunhild on her arrival at Sigibert's court?
"goodlooking and shrewd with a large dowry of treasure"
118 of 244
What must be remembered about Gregory of Tour's view of Brunhild?
Must be set in literary as well as historical context
119 of 244
How does Gregory of Tours describe Chilperic?
"the Nero and Herod of our time"
120 of 244
How does Gregory of Tours see Fredegund?
Female counterpart of Chilperic, views negatively
121 of 244
How does Gregory of Tours view Brunhild?
Avenger on the side of the angels
122 of 244
Who was Theudechild?
Wife of Theudebert II of Austrasia
123 of 244
From what position did Theudechild ascend the throne?
Position of royal concubine
124 of 244
Theudebert II of Austrasia
125 of 244
What happens after the death of Theudechild's husband (don't say who husband is)
Messengers sent from King Guntram asking for her hand in marriage - collected her positions and set out to join him
126 of 244
What is Guntram said to have said when he saw Theudechild?
"It is better that this treasure should fall into my hands than that it should remain in the control of this woman who was unworthy of my brother's bed"
127 of 244
What did Guntram do to Theudechild?
Seize most of her goods and sent her off to a nunnery
128 of 244
Theudechild was seen by the abbess about to try to escape from nunnery. What happened?
She was beaten mercilessly and locked up in her cell; until she died
129 of 244
Did becoming an abbess mean relinquishing power and influence?
130 of 244
Give examples of abbesses
St Hilda of Whitby, St Bathild, Clothild
131 of 244
Clothild - Royal Abbess
At Poiters. Not a saint but shows how coveted the role of abbess could be
132 of 244
Who became the founder and abbess of the nunnery at Poiters after being repudiated?
Radegund, the wife of Clothat I
133 of 244
Were women able to achieve prominence as abbesses of nunneries?
Yes, helping to shape contemporary culture
134 of 244
When, in 10th century Germany, Otto II and Henry II wanted historical works lauding their dynasty, where did they turn?
Nunnery at Nordhausen
135 of 244
Who did Otto II and Henry II want life of?
Queen Mathilda, female saint
136 of 244
How could a woman transcend the 'weakness' of her sex and become, if not virilised, desexualised?
137 of 244
Was the same literary and spiritual culture offered in monasteries to both men and women?
138 of 244
What was significant about an abbess of a double monastery?
Exercise the political power which in the secular world was monopolised by men
139 of 244
Despite the power a woman could hold as an abbess, what must be remembered?
Absence of any principle of matriarchy
140 of 244
What countries comprise Scandinavia?
Norway, Denmark, Sweden
141 of 244
Is much known about queenship as a political institution on the periphery of medieavl Europe?
142 of 244
What came relatively late to Scandinavia?
143 of 244
When was the first documented use of the Swedish term riddara (knight)?
Thirteenth century
144 of 244
What can be suggested about prominence of noblewomen at Scandinavian courts?
Slow to develop
145 of 244
How can the exercise of power be measured?
According to the use of 'potestas'
146 of 244
Reconstructing what the queen did and determining what changes can enact
147 of 244
How is fertility held up as one facet of female power?
Exerts lingering presence oer king and juidicial process
148 of 244
How could fertility be used even once a queen was no longer bearing children
When other "children" petition the crown
149 of 244
What are the best sources available for the study of medieval Denmark?
Diplomas, annals, chronicles and saints' lives
150 of 244
What do diplomats provide evidence of Danish queens acting as?
Donors or receivers of land and aswitness to royal acts
151 of 244
When is the Danish coin mentioning the name of a queen explicitly?
152 of 244
What is significant about the mothers of the children of Sven Estriden?
Know that he had sons to number of women but know nothing about their fate
153 of 244
Sven Estriden
154 of 244
What does evidence from the 10th century onwards show about medieval Danishqueens?
Came from a wide variety of backgrounds, e.g. slavonic princesses
155 of 244
What does one account say that Thyra Danebod (first half 10thc) ask for from Gorm for morning gift?
Whole of Denmark
156 of 244
What was significant about morning gifts in old Scandavian laws?
Became maternal inheritance of children
157 of 244
What was significant about Thyra Danebod asking for Denmark as morning gift?
One of her sons could be guaranteed the succession despite being an elective monarchy
158 of 244
From what period is more known about the queens of Scandinavia?
13th century
159 of 244
What has given some the idea that Scandinavian women were in a better position than other European medieval women?
Idea founded on Icelandic Sagas
160 of 244
What does Pauline Stafford say about women?
"Women have usually stood half hidden in the wings of the historical pagaent... an acute problem in the early middle ages"
161 of 244
What does Pauline Stafford say about the difficulties caused by sources?
"To bring the queens of the early Middle Ages into the light of day, let alone to give them life or comprehend their actions, is a task which our sources never make easy, often render impossible"
162 of 244
What is the overwhelming impression given by sources of early medieval history?
163 of 244
How are women often presented in sources?
Evil geniuses - bitterest taunts reserved for women who urge on rather than husbands who act
164 of 244
What did male virtue become?
Female vice
165 of 244
What do ecclesiastical writers cast queens and kings who oppose their heros as?
166 of 244
What was one of the most important sources of images of male and female action, shaping mentalities?
167 of 244
At the peak of "biblical kingship" in the early Carolingians, what did Charlemagne become?
168 of 244
Who was portrayed as Eve the temptress
Judith (wife of Louis the Pious)
169 of 244
Who were presented as Jezebels?
Brunhild and Bathild
170 of 244
Where were lives often written?
Religious houses founded by queens - glorify founders so reflect methods of production
171 of 244
What complicates the interpretation of lives of queens?
Propaganda purposes - did Radegund, Bathild and Matilda all wash feet of poor? Answer may be yes
172 of 244
Is there a ring of circumstantial truth to detail of Matilda washing feet on Sundays?
173 of 244
What is the problem with lives?
Cursory treatment of all but religious roles of subjects
174 of 244
Who was the first life of Matilda written for?
Otto II, her grandson
175 of 244
What is notable about the first life of Matilda, written for her grandson Otto II?
Shows more than normal delight at his birth
176 of 244
What does the second life of Matilda allege?
Preference for her second son Henry
177 of 244
Why does Matilda show preference for her second son Henry in the second life?
Henry was Henry II's own grandfather
178 of 244
Was there a spate of family histories in Ottonian Germany?
179 of 244
When does Pauline Stafford say that women were given a more prominent place in history?
When the security of the family, its unity and past mattered
180 of 244
What was the Ottonian dynasty beset by problems related to?
A recent acquisition
181 of 244
What did the tenth century lifeof Matilda use as a model?
182 of 244
What is notable about the tenth century life of Matilda?
She rises from king's bed to pray at night but only after he is asleep and returns in morning - prayers do not interfere with conjugal duties
183 of 244
What is there a strong influence of?
Gender theory
184 of 244
What is a major theme?
Deconstruction the modern preconception of medieval queens as largely passive figures dependent on male support
185 of 244
Did queens have a constitutional position?
186 of 244
Although queens did not have a constitutional position, what must be remembered?
Non-royal male nobles in similar position
187 of 244
Were queens like Brunhild and Fredegund playing a male power game?
Should it be considered a male power game - or is the issue of class important
188 of 244
What does Dorsey Armstrong argue?
Bede marginalises queens in order to represent them without power and influence
189 of 244
What does Augustine find when arrives in Kent?
King AEthelberht already has some knowledge of Christianity - Frankish wife called Bertha
190 of 244
What is said about King AEthelberht's marriage to Bertha?
"received her from her parents on condition that she should be allowed to practice her faith and religion unhindered"
191 of 244
What do holy queens in Bede's Ecclesiastical History function as?
Catalyst for conversion of husband which eventually or sometimes immediately leads to conversion of kingdom
192 of 244
What does Dorsey Armstrong suggest the recurrence of model of conversion regarding catalyst effec of queen suggest?
Royal women in early England or at least the England of Bede's text yielded a considerable degree of power and influence
193 of 244
What does James Campbell say about role of queens in Bede?
"It is a question of how far what appears to be the more purely historical parts of the Ecclesiastical History are affected by [Bede's] didactic purposes. These purposes certainly determined his selection of subject matter."
194 of 244
What is it clear about Bede's work?
Meant to be copied and widely disseminated as propaganda for English church
195 of 244
How does Bede help the aim of getting attention of ordinary men and women?
Accounts of miracles
196 of 244
After initially pointing toAEthelberg as the cause of Edwin's conversion what does Bede do?
Shifts the focus away from her
197 of 244
What does an analysis of the conversion of Edwin suggest?
Choosing events and acting selectively in order to teach a particular lesson to his audience
198 of 244
Although marriage of Edwin and AEthelburh is identified as critical point on conversion is it he climax?
No, it is the beginning of Christianization when Edwin promises to be tolerant of wife's faith and consider possibility
199 of 244
Who is significant in the conversion of Edwin?
Paulinus, AEthelburh's bishop who had accompanied her to Nortumbria
200 of 244
Apart from Edwin's betrothal vow, what is the participation of AEthelburh?
Gives birth to a child; it is Paulinus who convinces Edwin to have the child consecrated to Christ in thanks for a safe delivery
201 of 244
How does Boniface follow his predecessors?
Regards the king as the linchpin of conversion
202 of 244
When Boniface offered AEthelburh the achievement of the conversion of Northumbria through the agency of her husbad, what does this show?
Regards it as inconceivable that she should play any overt and public part in the conversion of the nation
203 of 244
Where was AEthelberh meant to function?
Private sphere
204 of 244
Do we get to find out from Bede more about AEthelberh's role in conversion of husband?
No and it is possible that the letter from Pope to her was included as from Pope not because to her; she acts as a facilitator
205 of 244
In each of the Christian princess/pagan king narratives what does Bede explicitly call attention to?
Presence of holy queens when discussing conversion of Northumbrians, Middle Angles, South Saxons and the Kentish people
206 of 244
What does a close analysis of Bede's use of queens show?
As conversion narratives progress, the role played by the queen diminishes, until disappear altogether
207 of 244
What does Bede show about kings in his writing by reducing influence of queen?
Kings chose to accept baptism because of their new-found belief in Christianity, not because of marriage to a Christian quen
208 of 244
How do Anglo-Saxon calendars, litanies and various other texts describe women, ex-queens or royal widows who retired to monasteries?
Scta Eormenhild virg or scta Sexburga virg
209 of 244
In which Anglo-Saxon well-born women was power respected and praised in?
Virgins (unmarried and haing taken veil) or 'honorary' virgins
210 of 244
Were numerous English monastic foundations set up or led by women who, as a result of marital status (poss. exception of AEthelthryth) could not have been virgins?
211 of 244
Why were women called virgins in texts?
Definining widows and kings wives emphasise they had done their job as women and had children
212 of 244
How does Aldhelm describe choice of chastity, which was akin to that of Mary Magdalene?
"virginity of the soul"
213 of 244
From the fourth century onwards at least, what did Christian society link the concept of virginity to?
Virgin Mary
214 of 244
Who commended the state of virginity as chastity in relation to nuns and widows?
Jerome and Gregory of Nyssa
215 of 244
Name a woman who was described as coming equal to a man?
the virgin Macrina
216 of 244
Who were the most highly praised women?
Those who behaved like a man in spiritual terms, in their religious life and spiritual ascetism
217 of 244
Jerome allowed his disciples Melania, Paula and Eustochium to direct other women but would he have suggested them acting as men in worldy context?
218 of 244
what was said about Hild?
"so great was her prudence that not only ordinary people but also kings and princes sometimes sought and received her counsel when in difficulties"
219 of 244
Do Merovingian sources often identify by name the wives and daughters of great men?
No, rarely do so
220 of 244
In the seventh century, how many Frankish queens are known to have begun careers as slaves?
Four - Bilichild and Theudechild (concubines), Nanthild (royal slave), Balthild
221 of 244
Balthild, wife of Clovis II, was so attractive suitors overlooked her servile origin, how was she characterised by biographer?
"beautiful, clever and of strong character"
222 of 244
As a queen did Balthild forget her own humble background?
No - took an active interest in improving the condition of slaves, prohibiting sale of Christian slaves and personally purchased freedom of many slaves
223 of 244
When was Saint Balthild forced to retire to Chelles?
224 of 244
Did women have the right to assume guardianship her fatherless children'?
Yes but on lower levels of society some widows relinquished right and remarried, leaving children with dead husband's relaties
225 of 244
What does Suzanne Fonay Wemple say about the power of queens
"contingent on the careful exploitation of personal ties. Whatever their origin, high born or slave, women who married kings gained access to the male world of politics and power"
226 of 244
What happened when Balthild overstepped the traditional female role of accomodation?
Magnates turned against her and ensured that she would not exert influence over her son
227 of 244
What does Janet Nelson say it is important to stress regarding queens?
"queens are not typical of women in this or any other period"
228 of 244
Why did the number of sixth-century women's houses remain low?
Could not readily be accommodated to the requirements of aristocratic families - mother of Rusticula who had entered convent at Arles: "I look at the possessions of our house.... and whom I shall leave it all to, I don't know"
229 of 244
Is there any evidence that Merovingian queens underwent any special inauguration ritual aside from marriage ritual?
No evidence
230 of 244
In Gaul what was the succession?
Filial succession - only way queen could secure position was to produce a surviving son
231 of 244
What was the age of majority in Gaul?
232 of 244
When Clovis died late in 657 Balthild as queen mother had a good claim to regency, but what allowed her to make the claim effective?
Established friendships, especially with Genesius
233 of 244
What does Ewig say that Balthild had attempted?
' a structural change in the Merovingian church"
234 of 244
How did Brunhild defy a group of armed enemies?
viriliter 'like a man'
235 of 244
While a king might win or confirm power on battlefield, where did he exercise it?
The hall - this was the prime area of queen's activity
236 of 244
Whose identity escapes us?
237 of 244
How does Stafford describe the pivotal role of the king's wife?
"magnified by the status of royal dynasties and extended by the fraught politics of royal succession"
238 of 244
Did an English queen ever become regent for a minor son?
239 of 244
What does Poulet stress about the fact that queens swore no coronation oath?
Left their power helpfully undefined but allowed them no effective claims to deference except as royal wives and mothers
240 of 244
A few widows and some repudiated wives returned to their native home, best protection outside of marriage. What did Emma say about that?
"My enemies glory that I have neither brother, relative nor friend to help me"
241 of 244
Who offered exiled royal widows nunneries as places of refuge?
Charlemagne and Charles the Bald
242 of 244
Where did most queens retire, willingly or not?
243 of 244
Did all royal widows who retired to nunneries take the veil?
No. Gregory of Tours describes Clotild at Tours as "devoted to God", not "Consecrated to GOd" as a nun
244 of 244

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does the Chronicle of Fredegar say about execution of Queen Brunhild?


"She was then torn to piees by the hooves and the pace of the galloping horse"

Card 3


Where does the Chronicle of Fredegar borrow the story of Brunhild's death from?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did Saint Columbanus command Brunhild's grandson Theuderic to do?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How does the Chronicle of Fredegar describe Brunhild's grandson concubines incident?


Preview of the front of card 5
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