Occupational revision

Arnold et al (2016)
Motivation is made up of three components which are direction, effort & persistence
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What are all of the content theories?
Maslow's (1943) hierarchy of needs...Alderfer's (1969) ERG theory...Herzberg's (1959) two factor theory...McClelland's (1961) achievement need theory...McGregor's (1960) Theory X and Theory Y
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Maslow (1943)
Hierarchy of Needs - Hierarchy - needs appear in a certain order, lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Limitations - higher needs can be achieved before lower needs
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Alderfer (1969)
ERG theory - took Maslow's theory & took it one step further. principle is the same, in that after lower level needs are satisfied, the individual seeks higher needs. However, acknowledged the limitation - motivated by needs more than 1 at a time
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Herzberg (1959)
two factor theory - focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation & job satisfaction, that those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction. Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene does not lead to motivation
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McClelland (1961)
achievement need theory - Different things will motivate different people. Everybody has 3 basic needs, but not to the same extent
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McGregor (1960)
Theory X & Theory Y - There are 2 different assumptions that managers have on how they view employees, & how they adapt their managerial style based on their assumptions of employees. Theory X and Theory Y
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What are all of the process theories?
Vroom's (1964) expectancy theory...Locke's (1968) goal setting theory...Adam's (1963) equity theory
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Vroom (1964)
expectancy theory - This theory assumes that motivation will depend on three factors - Valence, instrumentality, expectancy. Give score then x. Multiplication so all would have to have higher than 0 for individual to be motivated to achieve the goal
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Locke (1968)
goal setting theory - 4 goal setting theory conditions and goals should also be SMART. By setting goals that have these characteristics, they are more likely to be attained.
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Adam (1963)
equity theory - Focuses on people's perceptions of the fairness (or lack of) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs. A relative outcome to input ratio comparison to oneself or to another person perceived as similar to oneself.
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Zhao & Chadwick (2014)
Motivation matters. showed that the motivation to develop new products is a stronger predictor of companies' success in doing so than the capabilities of staff
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Application of these theories in practice - Maslow's (1943) Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological needs - e.g. air, water & food. E.g. motivated to earn money to be able to buy food. Need for safety e.g. motivated to have job security. Belongingness e.g. feel like a valued member at work.
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Application of these theories in practice - Alderfer's (1969) ERG theory
similar to Maslow (1943). But more than 1 at once also
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Application of these theories in practice - Herzberg's (1959) two factor theory
Hygiene needs - related to the physical & psychological context of the work: company policy, comfortable work environment, pay, job security. Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself: achievement, recognition, advancement, autonomy
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Application of these theories in practice - McClelland's (1961) achievement need theory
Need for achievement e.g. ....Need for affiliation e.g. stay late at work to help a colleague with a task. Need for power e.g. may be putting in effort at work to achieve a managerial position. Organisations should provide opportunities for all 3
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Application of these theories in practice - McGregor's (1960) Theory X & Theory Y
X- Without control employees will pursue their own goals,which will be contrary to those of the organisation.Y-employees are fundamentally moral&responsible people who will strive for the good of the organisation if they are treated as such
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Application of these theories in practice - Vroom's (1964) expectancy theory
E.g. motivated to get a promotion at work. Score valence, instrumentality & expectancy for this.
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Application of these theories in practice - Locke's (1968) goal setting theory
Employees often don't get to contribute to goals that are set for them, therefore acceptance & commitment may not be there. SMART goal e.g. "Achieve an average customer satisfaction score of 90% for the XYZ product, by the end of the year".
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Application of these theories in practice - Adam's (1963) equity theory -
Equity - both put the same effort in & both get the same salary - not motivated to change anything. Or, inequity which motivate to change something. Underpayment inequity eg....and overpayment inequity e.g......
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Employee Involvement (EI)
Activities designed to increase the amount of information which employees receive about their organisation & to provide them with the opportunity to contribute to decisions - thereby increasing their commitment to the organisation's success.
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What is job design?
the process of linking specific tasks to specific jobs and deciding what techniques, equipment, and procedures should be used to perform these tasks.
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Early approaches:
o Scientific management - Job simplification; Job specialisation; Time and motion studies. o Job enlargement o Job enrichment
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The Job Characteristics Theory is an approach to job design that...
aims to identify characteristics that make jobs intrinsically motivating and the consequences of those characteristics.
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Hackman & Oldham (1980)
Five 'Core Job Dimensions'
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What are the five 'core job dimensions'?
skill variety; task identity; task significance; autonomy; and feedback
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How do the five 'core job dimensions' work?
skill variety,task identity&task sig. improve meaningfulness of work.Autonomy improves responsibility for work outcomes.Feedback will improve a sense of knowledge of the results of your work.&together they are going to increase motivation,performance
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Another way to design jobs that are motivating is to measure the....
motivating potential score
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And that is to provide motivating potential scores for....
the aspects of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback from the Job Characteristics Theory
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Motivating potential score
Add scores of skill variety,task identity,task significance together... / 3... x by autonomy&feedback. These are multiplication so this theory assumes that in the absence of autonomy or the absence of feedback the motivating..but others are + so.....
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The Social Information Processing Model
an approach to job design-information from other people&workers' own past behaviours influence workers' perceptions of&response to the design of their jobs.social environment provides info about which aspects of their job they should pay attention to
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Card 2


What are all of the content theories?


Maslow's (1943) hierarchy of needs...Alderfer's (1969) ERG theory...Herzberg's (1959) two factor theory...McClelland's (1961) achievement need theory...McGregor's (1960) Theory X and Theory Y

Card 3


Maslow (1943)


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Card 4


Alderfer (1969)


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Card 5


Herzberg (1959)


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