Psychology

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What is classical conditioning?
Classical conditioning is learning through association- the forming of associations between two stimuli that are normally unrelated.
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What is operant conditioning?
Operant conditioning is learning in the context of experiencing or avoiding rewards and punishments, contingent upon performing a behaviour.
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What is a schedule of reinforcement?
A schedule of reinforcement tells us how often reinforcement will occur ie. continuous or intermittent.
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Explain Pavlov's dog experiment.
Pavlov presented dogs with food and measure their salivary response. He then began ringing a bell just before presenting the food. After a while, the dogs began to salivate when the sound of the bell was present.
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Identify and explain the 3 stages of classical conditioning.
Before conditioning: UCS > UCR and a neutral stimulus > no response. During conditioning: UCS + neutral stimulus > CR and neutral stimulus = CS. After conditioning: CS > CR
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Explain the Little Alert experiment.
Prior to experimentation, Albert was unafraid of the white rat. While playing with the rat, the experimenters frightened the child by making a loud noise behind him. Albert was startled and started to cry. Thereafter, he avoided the rat.
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What is the importance of timing in CC?
Learning will only occur if events occur relativity close together in time (contiguity). The more reinforcement, the stronger the pairing. This means the CS is contingent upon the UCS.
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What is the difference between stimulus generalisation and stimulus generalisation?
Stimulus generalisation is the transfer of a learned response to similar but different stimuli. Whereas, stimulus discrimination is the ability to distinguish between different stimuli.
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What is habituation? Give an example.
Habituation is the change in behaviour when we stop responding to a particular stimulus eg. living close to a train station.
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What is the relationship between extinction and spontaneous recovery in CC?
After conditioning, if the CS occurs repeatedly without the UCS, the CR will eventually cease. The reappearance of this extinguished response after the passage of time, without training, is called spontaneous recovery.
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What is positive reinforcement?
Positive reinforcement is to strengthen a behaviour by adding a rewarding stimulus.
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Explain the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment.
Negative punishment is to strengthen a behaviour by removing an unpleasant stimulus. Whereas, punishment is adding an unpleasant stimulus or removing a rewarding one in order to weaken a behaviour.
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When does extinction occur in OP?
Extinction occurs as a result of withholding reinforcement.
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What is the difference between an interval and ratio schedule?
An interval schedule is based on a passage of time. A ratio schedule is based on a number of correct responses.
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Describe the process of shaping.
Shaping is the method of successive approximations. It involves initially reinforcing a behaviour only slightly similar to the one desired. Once that behaviour has been reinforced, reinforcement is only given to variations that are closer to desired.
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What is a phobia?
A phobia is an irrational fear of an object, such as snakes.
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What is the difference between behaviour modification and behaviour therapy?
Behaviour therapy involves counter conditioning to change behaviours that are clinically debilitating. Whereas, behaviour modification is used to treat socially undesirable or unproductive behaviours.
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What are the three key points of systematic desensitisation?
1. It's counter conditioning, replacing fear with relaxation. 2. Relation techniques are taught prior to therapy. 3. A hierarchy of fears is establish and worked through.
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Distinguish insight learning from observational learning.
Insight learning involves the spontaneous combination of a number of isolated experiences to produce a new behaviour. Observational learning is learning from observing a behaviour ie. imitating a model.
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What are the observational learning steps?
Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
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What influences observational learning?
Attention, retention, reproduction, motivation, the model
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When does learned helplessness occur?
When the participant is subjected to an adverse stimulus that it cannot escape, repeatedly.
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What is the difference between acquisition and performance?
Acquisition is where the learner obtains the behaviour without performing it. Due to repeated pairing, an association is made and the response is performed.
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What are the advantages of laboratory research?
Experimental conditions can be controlled and other extraneous variables can be minimized. It allows greater prediction and control of behaviour/
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What are the disadvantages of laboratory research?
May provide results that cannot be generalised to other situations due to the conditions being too controlled and sterile.
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What are the advantages of captive environments (zoos)?
Large range of species can be studied in a semi-wild habitat
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What are the disadvantages of captive environments (zoos)?
Captivity may influence behaviour
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What are the advantages of field research (wild)?
observe a wider range of animal's natural behaviour and show the interaction of different species
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What are the disadvantages of field research (wild)?
May take years to collect research, animals may disappear from view and researchers may face physical or emotional trauma.
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What ethical concerns were present in Watson's Little Albert experiment?
Created psychological distress for Albert, chose everyday objects to show Albert after fear was conditioned, physical harm at risk as Albert was on a table, no debriefing
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What ethical concerns were present in Bandura's Bobo doll experiment?
No right to withdrawal, left in a room with aggressive strangers for 10 minutes- causing stress, no debriefing for purpose
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What ethical concerns were present in Seligman's learned helplessness experiment?
Inescapable shocks, continued even when they were visually stressed, 33 minutes of inescapable shock
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What is operant conditioning?

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Operant conditioning is learning in the context of experiencing or avoiding rewards and punishments, contingent upon performing a behaviour.

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What is a schedule of reinforcement?

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Card 4

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Explain Pavlov's dog experiment.

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Identify and explain the 3 stages of classical conditioning.

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