Psychology

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Define Aim
A general statement that what the researcher intends to investigate; the purpose of the study.
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Define Hypothesis
A clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables to be investigated. It is stated at the outset of any study.
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Define Directional Hypotehis
States the direction of the study (also known as one - tailed)
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Define Non - Directional Hypothesis
Does not state the direction of the study (also known as two tailed)
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What is a Directional Hypothesis also known as?
One - tailed Hypothesis
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What is a Non - Directional Hypothesis also known as?
Two - tailed Hypothesis
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When is a Non - Directional Hypothesis suitable?
When there is no previous (secondary) data and you cannot expect the outcome of the experiment
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When is a Directional Hypothesis suitable?
When there is previous (secondary) data and you can predict the outcome of the experiment.
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Define Variables
Anything that you can change within an investigation.
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What is an Independent Variable (IV)?
The variable you change or manipulate in a research situation, usually to measure the effect on the Dependent Variable (DV)
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What is a Dependent Variable (DV)?
The variable you measure, as a result of the manipulated IV.
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Define Operationalisation
Clearly defining variables in terms of what can me measured and observed.
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What is an Extraneous Variable (EV)?
Any variable other than the IV that may have an effect on the DV.
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What is a Confounding Variable (CV)?
Any variable other than the IV that may affect the DV. It is essentially just an uncontrolled EV and so we cannot be sure of the true effect the IV has on the DV
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What is meant by Demand Characteristics?
Any cue from the researcher or from the situation that may be interpreted by the participant as revealing the purpose of the investigation and therefore participants might change their behaviour in the research situation.
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What is meant by Investigator Effects?
Any effect of the investigator's behaviour (conscious or unconscious) on the research outcome (the DV). This may include everything e.g. interaction with participants during the research and the design of the study.
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Define Randomisation
The use of chance in order to control for the effects of bias when designing materials and deciding the order of conditions.
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Define Standardisation
Using exactly the same formalised procedures and instructions dor all participants in a research study e.g. standardised procedures and standardised instructions.
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Identify the two commonly used forms of standardisation
Standardised Instructions and Standardised Procedures.
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Define Experimental Design
The different ways in which the testing of participants can be organised in relation to the experimental condition
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What are Independent Groups Designs?
Participants are allocated to different groups and each group represents one experimental condition (they don't take part in more than one condition)
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What is Repeated Measures?
All participants take part in all of the conditions in the study
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What is Matched Pairs Design?
Pairs of participants are first matched on some variable (s) that may affect the DV. One of the pair is assigned to the first condition and the other is assigned to the other condition.
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Define Random Allocation
An attempt to control for participant variab;es in an independent groups desgin which ensures that each participant has the same chance of being in one condition as any other.
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What is Counterbalancing?
An attempt to control for effects of order in a repeated measures design; half tha participants experience the condition in one another, and the other half in the opposite order
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What is an Experimental Group?
This is the true participants in an experiment, where the IV is manipulated
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What is a Control Group?
A control group is a group of participants that the experimental group is compared to, for this group they do manipulate the IV
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What is a Laboratory Experiment (lab)?
An experiment that takes place in a controlled environment within which the researcher mainpulates the IV and records the effects on the DV, whilst maintaining strict control of EV.
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What makes a lab experiment have high control?
Standardised Procedures, Standardised Instructions, Artificial Environment, Control over EV's.
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What is a Field Experiment?
An experiment that takes place in a natural setting within which the researcher manipulates the IV and records the effects on the DV.
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What is a natural experiment?
An experiment where the change in the IV is not brought about by the researcher but would have happened even if the researcher had not been there. The researcher records the effects on the DV.
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What is a Quasi Experiment?
A study that is almost an experiment but lacks key ingredients. The IV has not been determined by anyone as the variable simply exists, such as being old or young.
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Define Target Population
A group of people who are the focus of the researcher's interest, from which a smaller sample is drawn.
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Define Sample
A group of people who take part in a research investigation. The sample is drawn from a target population and is presumed to be representative of that population.
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What is meant by Sampling Techniques?
The method used to select people from the population.
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Define Generalisation
The extent to which findings and conclusions from a particular investigation can be broadly applied to the population. This is made possible if the sample of participants is representative of the population.
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Define Random Sampling
A sample of participants produced by using a random technique such that every member of the target population being tested has an equal chance of being selected.
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Define Stratified Sampling
This is where the population is split into different sub groups (strata) that need to be representative in the study. They are then chosen at random from the strata, but if it is not random then it is a quota sample.
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Define Opportunity Sampling
A sample of participants produced by selecting people who are most easily available at the time of the study
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Define Volunteer Sampling
A sample of participants produced by a sampling technique that relies solely on inviting people to take part.
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Define Systematic Sampling
A method of obtaining a representative sample by selecting every Nth person. This can be random if the first person is selected using a random method; then you select every Nth person after this.
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How many types of Sampling are there? Name them.
5 - random, volunteer, opportunity, stratified and systematic
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How many Experimental Design's are there? Name them.
3 - repeated measures, independent groups andmatched pairs
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How many Experimental Methods are there? Name them.
4 - lab, quasi, natural and field
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What type of research methods do you need to be aware of?
Case study, interview, observation, lab experiments, quasi experiments, natural experiments, field experiments,
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Define Ethical Issues
These arise when a conflict exists between the rights of a participant in research studies and the goals of the research to produce authentic, valid and worthwhile data
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What is the BPS code of Ethics?
A quasi legal document produced by the British Psychological Society (BPS) that instructs psychologists in teh Uk about what behaviour is and is not acceptable when dealing with participants. It is build around four major principles.
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What 4 major principles is the BPS built around?
Respect, competence, responsibility and integrity.
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What is meant by informed consent?
Making sure the participant are aware they are taking part in the study and making sure that they are ok to take part.
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How can you make sure you have informed consent?
Presumptive Consent, Prior General Consent and Retrospective Consent
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What is meant by the right to withdraw?
This is the participants right to no longer participate in the study, they should be aware that they can leave at any time and their results will not be used if they do not want them to be.
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What is deception?
Deception is a deviation of the aim. The participants think that the aim is something else which is different to the true aim. This is to reduce the likelihood of the participant changing their behaviour for the true aim.
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What is Presumptive Consent?
Rather than the participant agreeing themselves to take part, a similar group of people are asked if the study is acceptable. If they say it is then the consent of the original participants is 'presumed'
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What is Prior General Consent?
Participants give their permission to take part in a number of different studies - including one that will involve deception.
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What is Retrospective Consent?
Participants are asked for their consent during the debrief, after the study. This is when they are aware if there was any deception in the study and they are aware of the true aim.
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What is meant by protection from harm?
The rule that no study or investigation are allowed to put the participants under any stress or harm that could damage them psychologically or physically. If the study does, it is not allowed to go through and the study must be stopped.
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What is Privacy?
This is the participants right to withhold personal details about themselves when taking part in the study e.g. their address or maiden names
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What is Confidentiality?
We should respect the participants rights of privacy and so we shouldnt post any of their details with the findings or in any publication of the study. This is usually why studies refer to participants as numbers or code names.
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What act ensures that we keep details confidential?
Data Protection Act.
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What is a Pilot Study?
A small scale version of an investigation that takes place before the real investigation is conducted.
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What is the aim of a Pilot Study?
To check procedures, materials, measuring scales ect work and to allow the researcher to make changes or modifications if necessary.
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What is a Single - Blind Procedure?
This is an attempt to control confounding effects of demand characteristics by not telling the participants some details of the investigation e.g. whether they are taking a drug or a placebo.
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What is a Double - Blind Procedure?
This is an attempt to control confounding effects and bias from the researcher. This is where neither the participant or the researcher know some true details about the research. E.g. the researcher does not know who took the placebo or the drug.
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Define Observation
A research study where only observational techniques are used.
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What is a Naturalistic Observation?
Watching and recording behaviour in the setting within which is would normally occur.
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What is a Controlled Observation?
Watching and Recording behaviour within a structured environment i.e. one where some variables are managed/
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What is a Covert Observation?
Participants behaviour is being watched and recorded without their knowledge or consent. This may include the researcher not being part of the study themselves.
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What is an Overt Observation?
Participants behaviour is watched and recorded with their knowledge and consent. Sometimes, the researcher may actually be a part of the study so they can observe the participants closer.
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What is meant by Participant Observation?
The researcher becomes a member of the group whose behaviour they are watching and recording.
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What is meant by Non - Participant Observation?
The researcher remains outside of the group whose behaviour they are watching and recording.
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Define Behavioural Categories
When a target behaviour is broken up into components that are observable and measurable
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Define Event Sampling
A target behaviour or event is first established then the researcher records this event every time it occurs.
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Define Time Sampling
A target individual or group is first established then the researcher records their behaviour in a fixed time frame e.g. every 60 seconds
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What is meant by Continuous Recording?
This is when the researcher does not pick a specific time frame to observe the behaviours of the participants, they just measure them continuously.
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What is a Structured Observation?
The researcher uses various systems to organise observations, such as sampling technique and behavioural categories.
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What is an Unstructured Observation?
Every instance of a behaviour is recorded in as much detail as possible. This is useful if the behaviour you are interested in do not occur very often.
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Define Questionnaire
A set of written questions used to assess a person's thoughts and / or experiences.
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What is meant by Self - Report Technique?
Any method in which a person us asked to state or explain their own feelings, opinions, behaviours and/or experiences related to a given topic
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What is an Interview?
A live encounter (face to face or on the phone) where one person asks a set of questions to assess an interviewee's thoughts and/or experiences. The questions may be pre set of may develop as the interview goes along.
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What is an Open Question?
Questions for which there is no fixed choice of response and respondents can answer in any way they wish.
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What is a Closed Question?
Questions for which there is a fixed choice of responses determined by the question setter.
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Define Qualitative Data
Data that is expressed in words and non numerical. It can be converted to quantitative to make it easier to analyse.
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Define Quantitative Data
Data that can be counted, it is given as numbers or statistics.
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What is a Structured Interview?
Any interview where the questions are decided in advance, basically a questionnaire delivered by a person.
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What is an Unstructured Interview?
The interview starts out with some general aims and possibly some questions, and let the interviewee's answers guide subsequent questions.
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What is a Semi - Structured Interview?
An interview that combines some pre - determined questions and some questions developed in response to answers given. It is a mix between a structured and unstructured interview.
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What is meant by Social Desirability Bias?
A tendency for respondents to answer questions in such a way that presents themselves in a better light.
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What are Likert Scales?
This is a type of question in which respondents indicate their agreement with a statement using a scale of usually five points. The scale ranged from strongly agree (1) to strongly disagree (5).
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What are Rating Scales?
This is a type of question that gets respondents to identify a value that represents their strength of feeling about a particular topic, usually on a rating of 1 - 10 (1 being low and 10 being high)
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What are Fixed Choice Option Questions?
These questions give respondents a list of options to choose from to answer a question, they chose the option that is best suited to them.
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What is a Correlation?
A mathematical technique in which a researcher investigates an association between two variables, called co -variables.
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What is meant by a Positive Correlation?
As one variable increases, so does the other.
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What is meant by a Negative Correlation?
As one variable increases, the other decreases.
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What is meant by a Zero Correlation?
When there is no relationship between the co - variables. There is no pattern.
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What is Primary Data?
Information that has been obtained first - hand by the researcher for the purpose of a research project.
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What is Secondary Data?
Information that has already been collected by someone else and so pre - dates the current research project.
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Define Meta - Analysis
It is the process of combining results from a number of studies in a particular topic area to provide an overall view. This may involve qualitative conclusions and / or a quantitative analysis of the results producing an effect size.
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What is meant by Descriptive Statistics?
The use of graphs, tables and summary statistics to identify trends and analyse sets of data.
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What is meant by measures of Central Tendency?
The general term for any measure of the average value in a set of data.
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How many types of Central Tendency are there? What are they?
3 - Mean, Mode and Median
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What are Measures of Dispersion?
These are measurements involving the spread of data and how far the data/scores differ from one another.
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How many measurements of dispersion are there? Name them.
2 - Standard Deviation and the Range.
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What is the Mean, and how do you calculate this?
The arithmetic average calculated by adding up al the values in a set of data and dividing by the number of values there are.
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What is the Median and how do you calculate this?
This is the central value in a set of data when all the values are arranged from lowest to highest.
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What is the Mode and how do you calculate this?
The most frequently occuring value in a set of data.
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What is the Range and how do you calculate this?
This is a measurement of dispersion that refers to the spread of the data, from the lowest to the biggest. To calculate this, arrange the values in order from lowest to highest and take the lowest value from the highest.
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What is Standard Deviation?
A sophisticated measure of dispersion in a set of scores. It tells us how much scores deviate from the mean and each score.
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What is a Scattergraph?
A type of graph that represents strength and direction of a relationship between co-variables in a correlational analysis. The outcome can either be positive, negative or even zero.
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What is a Bar Chart?
A type of graph in which the frequency of each variable is represented by the height of the bars. It is used when there are different categories as the bars have gaps between to show the difference between them.
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What is a Histogram?
This is just like a bar chart, however the bars of the graph touch as they may have some similarities between the categories, or the categories overlap.
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What is a Raw Data Table?
The initial documentation of a set of results, usually written/noted during the investigation or when writing the results down for the first time afterwards.
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What is a Skewed Distribution?
A spread of frequency data that is not symmetrical, where the data clusters to one end.
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Describe a Positive Skew
A type of distribution in which the long tail is on the positive (right) side of the peak and most of the normal distribution is concentrated on the left. This may happen on a really difficult test where most people scores lowly on the test.
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Describe a Negative Skew
A type of distribution in which the long tail is the negative (left) side of the peak and most of the distribution is concentrated on the right. This can be evident in a really easy test where participants perform higher than the mean.
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What is meant by a Normal Distribution?
A symmetrical spread of frequency data that forms a bell - shaped pattern. The mean, median and mode are all located at the highest peak.
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What is the Accepted Level of Probability in Psychology?
P = 0.05 which is 5% (chance of the results occuring by chance)
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What is this Sign?:
Less than
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What is this Sign?: >
More than
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What is this Sign?: ∑
Sum of
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What is this Sign?: ≤
Less than or Equal to
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What is this Sig?: ≥
More than or equal to
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What is meant by the Economy?
The state of a country or region in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services.
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Define a Peer Review
The assessment of scientific work by others who are specialist in the same field to ensure that any research intended for publication is of high quality.
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What are the 3 Aims of a Peer Review?
To allocate research funding, to validate the quality and relevance of the research and to suggest amendments or improvements.
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What rating makes a perfect Negative Correlation?
-1
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What rating makes a perfect Positive Correlation?
+1
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What score makes a zero correlation?
0
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Define Correlation Coefficient
A number between -1 and +1 that represents the direction and strength of a relationship between co - variables.
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What is a Case Study?
An in depth investigation, description and analysis of a single individual, group, institute or event.
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Define Content Analysis
A research technique that enables the indirect study of behaviour by examining communications that people produce.
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What does Coding refer to in Research Methods?
The stage of content analysis in which the communication to be studies is analysed by identifying each instance of the chosen categories.
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Define Thematic Analysis
An inductive and qualitative approach to analysis that involves identifying implicit or explicit ideas within the data. Themes will often emerge once the data has been coded,.
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Define Reliability
This refers to how consistent the findings are from an investigation or measuring device are. A measuring device is said to be reliable if it produces consistent results every time it is used.
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What is Test - Retest Reliability?
A method of assessing the reliability of a questionnaire or psychological test by assessing the same person on two seperate occasions. This shows to what extent the test produces the same answers (consistency and reliability)
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What is Inter - Rater Reliability?
The extent to which there is an agreement between two or more observers involved in observations of a behaviour. This is measured by correlating the obsercation of two or more observers. If the correlation is above +0.8 then it has good IRR.
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How do you improve Reliability in Questionnaires
Using the test - retest method, comparing two sets of scores that produce a correlation that exceeds +0.8. If it doesn't then some elements may need to be re written or deselected.
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How do you improve Reliability in Interviews?
Using the same interviewer each time and make the interview structured (set questions)
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How do you improve Reliability in Experiments?
A higher level of control (just in lab experiments) this is through the use of standardised procedures, standardised instructions, artificial environment ect
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How do you improve Reliability in Observations
Make sure that the behavioural categories are properly operationalised into what can be seen and measured by the observer
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Define Validity
The extent to which an observed effect is genuine and truthful
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Define Face Validity
A basic form of validity in whih a measure is scrutinised to determine whether it appears to measure what it is supposed to measure
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Define Concurrent Validity
The extent to which a psychological measure relates to an existing similar measure
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Define Ecological Validity
The extent to which findings from a research study can be generalised to other settings and situations. It is a form of external validity
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What are the two main types of External Validity?
Ecological and temporal
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Define Temporal Validity
The extent to which findings from a research study can be generalised to other historical times and eras. A form of external validity.
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Define Internal Validity
This refers to whether the researcher has managed to measure what they intended to measure.
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Define External Validity
This refers to the extent the findings can be generalised beyong the research setting in which they are found.
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How many types of Statistical Tests are there? What are they?
8 - Chi Squared, Sign Test, Mann Whitney, Wilcoxon, Spearman's Rho, Pearson's r, Related t Test and Unrelated t Test.
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What is meant by Levels of Measurement?
Quantitative data can be classified into types or levels of measurement e.g. nominal, ordinal and interval.
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What is Nominal Data?
This is data that is represented in the form of categories - hence its also known as categorical data.
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What is Ordinal Data?
Data is ordered in some way but the intervals between each item are unequal.
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What is Interval Data?
This is data that is measured on a scale where the distance between each value is the same, such as when counting correct answers or using any 'public' unit of measurement.
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What are Parametric Tests?
A group of inferential statistics that make certain assumptions about characteristics (parameters) of the population from which the sample is drawn.
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How many Parametric Tests are there? Name them.
3 - Pearson's r, related t test and unrelated t test.
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How many Non - Parametric Tests are there? Name them.
5 - Chi Squared, Mann - Whitney, Wilcoxon, Spearman's Rho and the Sign Test
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What are the Three Criteria needed in order to use a Parametric Test?
Data must be interval, the data must be drawn from a population where a normal distribution is expected and there should be a homogeneity of variance.
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Define Chi Squared Test
A test for as association between two variables or conditions. Data should be nominal using an unrelated design.
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Define Sign Test
A statistical test used to analyse the difference in scores between related items. Data should be nominal.
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Define Mann - Whitney u Test
A test for a significant difference between two sets of scores. Data should be at least ordinal level using an unrelated design.
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Define Wilcoxon t Test
A test for a significant difference between two sets of scores. Data should be at least ordinal using a related design.
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Define Spearman's Rho Test
A test for correlation when data is at least ordinal level.
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Define Pearson's r Test
A parametric test for correlation when data is at interval data.
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Define Related t Test
A parametric test for difference between two sets of scores. Data must be interval with a related design
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Unrelated t Test
A parametric test for difference between two sets of scores. Data must be interval with an unrelated design.
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Define Probability
A measure of the likelihood that a particular event will occur where 0 indicates statistical impossibility and 1 statistical certainty
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What is Significance?
A statistical term that tells us how sure we are that a difference or correlation exists. A 'significant' result means that the researcher can reject the null hypothesis.
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What is meant by the Critical Value?
When testing a hypothesis, the numerical boundary or cut off point between acceptance and rejection of the null hypothesis.
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What is a Type I Error?
The incorrect rejection of the true null hypothesis (fale positive). We are more likely to make a type I error when the level of significance is too lenient (high).
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What is a Type II Error?
The failure to reject a false null hypothesis (a false negative). We are more likely to make a type II error when the level of significance is too stringent (low)
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Define Stringent
When the level of significance is set too low which means it is harder to find significance in work. This is usually used in important studies e.g. finding a cure for cancer.
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Define Lenient
When the level of significance is set too high, which makes it easier for significance to be found.
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What is a Paradigm?
A set of shared assumptions and agreed methods within a scientific discipline.
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What is a Paradigm Shift?
The result of a scientific revolution; a significant change in the dominant unifying theory within a scientific discipline
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Define Objectivity
When all sources or personal bias are minimised so as not to distort or influence the research process
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Define Replicability
The extent to which scientific procedures and findings can be repeated by other researchers
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Define Falsifiability
The principle that a theory cannot be considered scientific unless it admits the possibility of being proved untrue (False)
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What is the Empirical Method?
Scientific approaches that are based on the gathering of evidence through direct observation and experience.
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Define Generalisation
The extent to which findings and conclusions from a particular investigation can be broadly applied to the population. This is made possible if the sample of participants is representative of the population.
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A clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables to be investigated. It is stated at the outset of any study.

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Define Hypothesis

Card 3

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States the direction of the study (also known as one - tailed)

Back

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Card 4

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Does not state the direction of the study (also known as two tailed)

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Card 5

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One - tailed Hypothesis

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