Psychodynamic Approach

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  • Created by: Rebekah
  • Created on: 01-04-14 12:44
What is the Conscious?
Thoughts, emotions and feelings of which we are aware of and easily accessed
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What is the Preconscious?
Thoughts and ideas that can be accessed and are ready to be known about, but are not actually conscious at the time
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What is the Unconscious?
The main part. Where all thoughts orginate with some becoming conscious.
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What is the Id and where is it found?
Found in the Unconscious. The impulsive part of the personality that we are born with.
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What does the Id demand and what is its aim?
Immediate satisfaction with an aim to gain pleasure - driven by the PLEASURE PRINCIPLE
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What is the Superego and where is it found?
Found partly in the Unconscious but some in the Preconscious. Develops around age 4 and embodies the child's sense of right and wrong as well as their ideal self.
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What is the aim of the Superego?
Aims to perfect and civilise our behaviour - driven by the MORALITY PRINCIPLE
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What is the Ego and where is it found?
Found in all parts. Develops from 18 months. Function to work out realistically and rationally.
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What is the aim of the Ego?
Aims to balance the demands of the Id in a socially acceptable way
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What are defence mechanisms?
Ego defence mechanisms enable the go to keep peace between the id (want) and the superego (can't have), or between conflicting demands of the id
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Why do we have defence mechanisms?
Internal conflicts create anxiety. The ego attempts to reduce anxiety through defence mechanisms - by pushing out of conscious awarenes or transferring the desire onto something safer
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Defence mechanisms: Repression
Repressing thoughts into the unconscious to try and forget. Example: when something traumatic happens (e.g.) abuse and people don't remember anything about it.
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Defence Mechanisms: Displacement
Unacceptable urges are turned into something else. Example: anger might be turned into aggression in sport.
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Psychosexual development: When is the Oral stage?
0-18 months
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Psychosexual development: Oral. What is the libido focused on? The feature?
The mouth (breast feeding, sucking etc.) Baby explores the world by putting objects in mouth. Only the Id is present.
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Psychosexual developmemt: Oral. What changes does this cause in the personality? Fixations?
Able to trust others. Oral Receptive: optimistic, gullible and dependent. Oral Aggressive: aggressive, pessimistic and envious.
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Psychosexual development: When is the Anal stage?
2-3 years
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Physosexual development: Anal. What is the libido focused on? The feature?
Focused on the **** (potty training, self control) pleasure and sexual energy. Development of the ego
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Psychosexual development: Oral. What changes does this cause in the personality? Fixations?
Authority. Anal Expulsive (lenient parents during this stage): messy, unorganised. Anal Retentive (strict parents during this stage): stubborn, obstinate, organised.
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Psychosexual development: When is the Phallic stage?
4-6 years
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Psychosexual development: Phallic. What is the libido focused on? What develops?
Pleasure and sexual energy is on genitals. Development of gender identity, supergo, conscience and ego ideal.
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Psychosexual development: Phallic. What is the Oedipus Complex?
The relationship between the boy and parents. A boy focused his pleasure on genitals on his mother. Relationship between parents leads boy to see father as rival. Identifies with father to possess mother without guilt. Fear his father would punish.
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Psychosexual development: Phallic: Oedipus Complex: What fear developed?
Castration fear. -- Boys fear that father would castrate him for having feelings for his mother
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Psychosexual development: Phallic: What is the Electra Complex?
Not developed by Freud. A girl focused his pleasure on genitals on her father. A girl understands she doesn't have a penis and develops penis envy. Identifies with mother so can have father.
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Psychosexual development: Phallic: What is Penis Envy?
The girl feels less worthy than her father because she has no penis. Focuses on her father = believes she will get one/a substitute aka a baby.
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Psychosexual development: Phallic: What develops as a result of Oedipus Complex and Electra Complex?
Girl identifies with mother and boy identifies with father -- superego develops -- conscience and ego ideal develop -- gender behavious develops
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Psychosexual development: Phallic: What fixations develop?
self-assured, reckless, vain, proud -- unable in loving another person
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Psychosexual development: When is the Latency stage?
6 years - beginning of puberty
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Psychosexual development: What happens in the Latency stage?
No sexual energy is focused anywhere on the body. Children prefer friends of the same sex and focus on sport and school.
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Psychosexual development: When is the Genital stage?
From the beginning of puberty
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Psychosexual development: Genital: If Oedipus Complex successfully resolved, what happens?
Friendship between the two genders - heterosexual friendships and relationships develop. This is because little energy was used because of fixation in previous stages so can be used in genital stage for 'normal' relationships to develop
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Psychosexual development: Genital: If Oedipus Complex wasn't successfully resolved, what happens?
Fixated in phallic stage - problems can occur with relationships - includes development of homosexuality
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Give two strength's of Freud's theory and phsychodynamic approach
1) addressed neuroses such as hysteria - allowed treatment for mental illnesses that were otherwise untreated at the time. 2) His theory was built up from in-depth case studies including valid data
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Give four weaknesses of Freud's theory and psychodynamic approach
1) Non scientific and personal to each individual - not generalisable. 2) Interpretations so subjective. 3) Bias - lacks generalisability. 4) Theory is limited because it stops at adolescence
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When was Freud's case study of Little Hans?
1909
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Little Hans (1909): What was the aim?
To monitor the development of a child up to the age of around 5
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Little Hans (1909): Where did the data come from?
Hans' dad in letters he wrote to Freud and occasionally Freud would meet with Hans. Hans also asked his dad to tell Freud a few things
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What were Little Hans (1909) dreams?
He wanted a female friend to share 'widdling'. -Wiping his bottom and having children and wiping their bottoms. He denied these thoughts and said they were just dreams. Sitting on a giraffe with one watching
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Little Hans (1909): How does the Oedipus Complex apply?
His father went away a lot and Hans wanted him to - wished his father was dead - would sleep in bed with his mom while dad away - played with dolls and 'having children', his mother was the mother and he was the father - Hans' father was grandfather
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Little Hans (1909): What were his phobias?
Horses - saw one fall down pulling a carriage and overheard a dad telling his daughter not to touch horse, it would bite her
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Little Hans (1909): Phobia analysis
Phobia of horses was really a fear of his father for hating him and wanting him out of the way. Phobia of white horses with black coverings = dad with beard
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Little Hans (1909): Dream analysis
The giraffes representative of his parents - sexual scene - Hans and his mother - giraffe he was sitting on = mother. He got pleasure from his bum being wiped - repression in anal stage
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Little Hans (1909): Sister analysis
jealous of his sister = brought back pleasure he had at that age. Fear of underwater = wanted little sister to drown, mom to let go of her head. Hans agreed to this. Wanted his father &sister away = mother to himself
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Little Hans (1909): Doll analysis
Making him the father and his father the grandfather showed Hans had go around the idea of wanting his dad dead and was beginning to accept his presence but as another figure
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Little Hans (1909: What conclusion can be drawn?
> provides support for his theory. > evidence of oedipus complex. > the unconscious has a way of expressing itself through means such as dreams.
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Little Hans (1909): Strengths
1) supports psychosexual theory, oedipus complex, Unconscious, repressing thoughts and dream analysis. 2) case study = obtains data with high yield in-depthh quality info. Other methods wouldn't achieve this or allow Freud to analyse info to support
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Little Hans (1909): Weaknesses
1) oedipus complex, castration fear and Unconscious = unmeasurable - cannotbe scientifically tested 2) Parents were folowers - passed on info - bias? - passed on relevant info.
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Little Hans (1909): Weaknesses, contradictions
Bowlby (1949): mother-child attachment = strong = Hans' fear derived from mother leaving as she once threatened. 2) learning theory: horse phobia: due to his real life experience
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Who carried out the case study of Dibs and when?
Virginia Axline (1964)
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Axline's (1964) Dibs: What was the aim?
To unlock the problem causing Dibs' behaviour - teachers thought he wasn't lacking intellectually but he refused to communicate
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Axline's (1964) Dibs: What was the procedure?
1) Axline visited school - playroom - observed behaviour. 2) Met mother - agreed for play therapy sessions - hour a week. 3) kept detailed records of observations and discussions with dibs/mother/teacher
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Axline's (1964) Dibs: Key features
> violent outbursts > never wanted to go home > lock windors/doors on doll house > doll = papa = buried in sand > hid soldiers = dad > wanted his dad away > mother ashamed > only liked grandmother > parents = high achievers
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Axline's (1964) Dibs: themes
1) waited for Dibs to speak - she wanted natural behaviour 2) dislike for father - called toy soldier pap and hurt it - locked parents in doll house on fire, were released 3) didn't show intellect until finally showed gift at end of therapy
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Axline's (1964) Dibs: findings
1) support regarding Unconscious, the need to allow catharsis - happier and found his personality, and appropriateness of ide/ego/supergo - play therapy allowed him to act out his unconscious which then became conscious and got rid of problems
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Axline's (1964) Dibs: Strengths
1) case study - enriched w/qualitative data incl. statements = can explore Dib's emotions, thoughts and abilites - finds out what its set to = high context validity 2) ecological validity: natural envi. &no interference from Axline
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Axline's (1964) Dibs: Weaknesses
1) Difficult to test for reliability = Dibs will never be the same = cannot be replicated 2) Lacks applicability - difficult to apply theories to psycho. approach &no support for Freud's theories 3) nonscientific - body of knowledge cant be built
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Card 4

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