Cognitive

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What is memory?
Process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past.
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What is duration?
How long a memory is available before it is no longer available.
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What is capacity?
How much can be held/stored.
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What is encoding?
Way information is processed so that it can be stored in memory. Information reaches the brain via the senses (e.g. sight and sound) and it is then stored in various forms - visual (pictures), acoustic (sounds) and semantic (meaning)
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What is the duration of the STM?
Peterson and Peterson - 20 Seconds. Nairne-96 Seconds
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What is the duration of the LTM?
Hrs, Days, Yrs Potentially unlimited (Life time) Bahrick - high school year book.
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What is the capacity of the LTM?
Potentially unlimited
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What is the capacity of the STM?
Miller-7 Items or Chunks Magic number, - 7 +/- 2.
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What is the encodingn of the LTM?
Baddeley-Mainly semantic (can be visual and acoustic).
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What is the encoding of the STM?
Baddeley-Mainly acoustic or visual.
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What is the key study and aim for the duration of the STM?
Peterson and Peterson 1959. Aim-To test the duration of STM.
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What is the method of Peterson and Peterson 1959?
.
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What were the results of Peterson and Peterson 1959?
When there was a three second gap the recall was 80%. When the gap was eighteen seconds the recall was 10%.
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What was the conclusion of Peterson and Peterson 1959?
This suggested that when rehearsal is prevented, STM lasts for about 20 seconds.
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Evaluate Peterson and Peterson
:) Lab experiment- variables were controlled allows us to establish cause and effect. :( Only tested one type of memory-lacks ecological validity and mundane realism. Restricted sample-can't be generalised.
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What did Nairne find in 1999?
Items could be recalled after as long as 96 Seconds
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What is the key study for the duration of LTM? Method, results, conclusion?
Bahrick 1975. Method-392Participants, various ages were asked to put names to faces from their high school year book. Resultsf-48 years after leaving school people were about 80% accurate in their results. Conclusion-Duration can be up to a lifetime.
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Evaluate Bahrick et al 1975.
:) Ecologically valid (used in real life) :( Lack of control of extraneous variables, (could have seen people since).
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What is the key study and aim for encoding?
Baddeley 1966. Aim-To test the effects of acoustic and semantic similarity on STM and LTM.
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What is the method for Baddeley 1966?
Participants were given lists of words which were acoustically similar (e.g. cat, rat) or dissimilar (e.g. pen, day). And words which were semantically similar (e.g. great, large, big) or semantically dissimilar (e.g. thin, safe, deep).
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What is the results for Baddeley 1966?
Participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not in LTM. Remembered semantically similar words in STM but was a problem remembering in LTM. STM-semantically similar. LTM-remember acoustically similar.
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What was the conclusion of Baddeley 1966?
Supports the idea that we encode acoustically in STM and Semantically in LTM.
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Evaluate Baddeley 1966.
:) Good control over extraneous variables that could have affected the dependent variable For example poor hearing (B gave them hearing test). :( Artificial situation (lacks ecological validity) - Learning lists is unlike real life - lacks mundane r
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What is the key study for capacity?Aim, method.
Miller 1956-The magic number 7 +/- 2 if we 'chunk' info together we can remember more. Jacobs-.AIM: To test the capacity of STM. Method-: Used digit span technique to assess capacity.
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What are the results and evaluation for Jacobs ?
Findings-Average digit span 9.3 items (numbers) whereas it was 7.3 for letters Evaluation- why could participants remember more numbers than letters. There are only 9 possible numbers but 26 letters. Independent group design.
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Who introduced the multi-store model of memory?
Atkinson and Schiffrin 1968.
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How does the multi-store model of memory work?
An environmental stimuli is taken in by the sensory store. If attention is paid to it, it goes into the STM store. If maintenance rehearsal takes place then it stays in the STM, If it is elaborately rehearsed then it goes into the LTM store.
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Evaluate the Atkinson and Schiffrin multi-store model of memory.
.
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Who introduced the working memory model?
Baddeley and Hitch - 1974
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How does the working memory model work?
.
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Evaluate the working memory model.
.
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Define eye witness testimony.
Is the evidence provided in court with a view to identify the perpetrator of the crime.
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What can affect EWT?
Encoding-may be distorted as a lot of crimes happen quickly and at night. Retention-memories can be lost or modified other memories might interfere. Retrieval-The witness retrieves memory from storage - various things may affect the accuracy.
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What is a leading question?
A question that suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads the witness to a desired answer.
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What is the key study and aim for leading questions?
Loftus and Palmer 1974. Aim-To find out whether memory could be influenced by the type of questions people were asked.
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What is the method of the first condition of Loftus and Palmer 1974?
A series of car crash videos were shown to 45 students. Split into 5 groups and answered a question after watching the video. The question was "How fast were the cars going when they smashed/collided/bumped/hit/contacted into each other?"
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What were the results of Loftus and Palmer 1974?
The word made a huge difference to the estimated speed given. Averages of estimated speed: Smashed -> 40.8 Mph (Highest) Collided -> 39.3 Mph Bumped -> 38.1 Mph Hit -> 34.0 Mph Contacted -> 31.8 Mph (Lowest)
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What was the conclusion of Loftus and Palmer 1974?
Conclusion-Information presented after the event can significantly influence over perception of the event. In this experiment the word used influenced the perception of speed.
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Evaluated Loftus and Palmer.
Evaluation-:) Controlled conditions meaning cause and effect could be established. :( Watching a video under lab conditions is different to the shock in real life (ecological validity). Population validity. Demand characteristics.
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What is the method of the second condition of Loftus and Palmer 1974?
.
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What is the yerkes-dodson law (1908)?
Accuracy is poor when arousal is either high. This is because the stress levels are too high so attention is not paid to the surroundings. Or, low arousal- no attention payed. Optimal accuracy is likely when conditions of medium arousal are present.
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What is the key study and aim for weapon focus effect?
Loftus 1979. Aim-To find out whether anxiety in eyewitness testimony affected later identification.
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What was the method for Loftus 1979?
.
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What were the findings of Loftus 1979 (weapon focus)?
Findings-49% correctly recalled the confederate from 50 photos in condition where the person emerged holding a pen in greasy hands. whereas 33% correctly recalled the confederate from 50 photos when the person emerged holding a paper knife covered.
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What was the conclusion of Loftus 1979?
'Weapon focused phenomenon' as participants focused on weapon and less likely to recall the person accurately. Weapon focuses the attention and narrows the focus of attention, resulting in accurate central details but less accurate peripheral detail
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Evaluate Loftus 1979.
:) Replicable. :( Lack mundane realism. Ethical issues. Deception.
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What are the two principles the cognitive interview is based on?
Organisation- The way that memory is organised means that memories can be accessed in various ways. Context-dependency- Memories are context-dependent, meaning they are linked to the situation in which they were encoded.
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What are the components of the cognitive interview?
.
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Define mnemonic.
A mnemonic is something that is used to assist or aid memory, it can be either verbal or visual.
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State and explain verbal mnemonics.
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State and explain visual mnemonics.
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Card 2

Front

What is duration?

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How long a memory is available before it is no longer available.

Card 3

Front

What is capacity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is encoding?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the duration of the STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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