Protein synthesis

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Transcription definiton
The process of copying DNA base sequence to produce smaller molecules of mRNA, which can be transported out of the nucleus via the nuclear pores to the site of protein synthesis
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Sense strand
Only one of the two strands contains the code for the protein to be synthesised (5’ to 3’)
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Antisense strand
Acts as a template strand during transcription (3’ to 5’)
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Process of transcription
DNA unzips from a start codon to and end codon (one gene) due to DNA helicase and free RNA nucleotides pair to exposed complementary bases on the antisense strand (with thymine being replaced with uracil) producing messenger RNA
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Movement of mRNA
After mRNA is synthesised in it detached from the template strand Andy moves out of the nucleus through the nuclear pores and travels to a ribosome in the cell cytoplasm
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Translation definiton
Process by which the complementary code carried by mRNA is decoded by tRNA into a sequence of amino acids at a ribosome
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Structure of ribosomes
Made up of 2 subunits, one small and one large, composed of protein and ribosomal RNA
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rRNA
Maintains structural stability of protein synthesis sequence and catalyses the reaction
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Transfer (t)RNA
Composed of a strand of RNA folded so that 3 bases (antiocodon) are at one end of the molecule and it carries an amino acid at the other end
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Process of translation
1- mRNA binds to the small subunit of the ribosome at its start codon 2- a tRNA with a complementary anticodon binds to the mRNA start codon 3- another tRNA binds to the next codon and a peptide bond is formed between the 2 adjacent amino acids
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Sense strand

Back

Only one of the two strands contains the code for the protein to be synthesised (5’ to 3’)

Card 3

Front

Antisense strand

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Process of transcription

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Movement of mRNA

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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