production, productivity and efficiency

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production
turning raw materials into a good or service
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productivity
how effectively resorces are being used
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efficiency
organising production so that costs are the lowest possible with the least possible waste
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job production
one product is made at a time e.g a bridge or aeroplane
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batch production
product is made in stages e.g. soft drink factory makes batches of orange drinks before changing to batches of apple drinks
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flow production
products are made continously often on an assembly line e.g. mass produced products
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cell production
workers divide into teams to complete all stages of production e.g. mass produced prducts
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factors affecting productivity
amount of capital (tools and machines), technology, human capital (workers) and organising resorces affectively
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factors affecting efficiency
technology, labour (employees), outsourcing and service industries
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capital
machines and equipment in a business
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labour
are the employees in a business
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advantages of job production
quality is high as workers are skilled
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advantages of job production
workers are well motivated because work is varied
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advantages of job production
products can be custom made and poduction is easy to organise
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disadvanatges of job production
high labour costs due to skilled workers
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disadvanatges of job production
production may be slow
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disadvanatges of job production
a wide range of specialist tools maybe needed which are expensive
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advantages of flow production
very low unit costs due to economies of scale
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advantages of flow production
output can be produced very quickly
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advantages of flow production
modern machines can allow some flexibility
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disadvantages of flow production
products may be too standardised
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disadvantages of flow production
breaks in production can be very expensive
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disadvantages of flow production
worker motivation is very slow because they are doing repetitive tasks
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advantages of cell production
team members are multiskilled
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advantages of cell production
it increases motivation which leads to increased efficiency
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advantages of cell production
quality improves because each cell is responsible for their own tasks
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disadvantages of cell production
some technical economies cant be reached
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disadvantages of cell production
managering, ordering and stock control can become more complex
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disadvantages of cell production
it can be wasteful if machinary is given to each cell
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advantages of batch production
equipment can be used to make different products in response to customer demand
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advantages of batch production
can be more efficient and flexible use of equipment
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disadvantages of batch production
loss of output when switching between batches e.g switching between batches of flavoured drinks there will be cleaning time which increses costs
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disadvantages of batch production
risk of waste/contamination changing between batches which could damage reputation and increase costs
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

how effectively resorces are being used

Back

productivity

Card 3

Front

organising production so that costs are the lowest possible with the least possible waste

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

one product is made at a time e.g a bridge or aeroplane

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

product is made in stages e.g. soft drink factory makes batches of orange drinks before changing to batches of apple drinks

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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