Politics in Europe

What is needed for a majority?
More than 50% of the vote
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What is a grand coalition?
A coalition of the two biggest parties
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What is a rainbow coalition?
A coalition of more than two parties
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What is a confidence and supply arrangement?
An arrangement where the smaller parties agree to vote with the government on key events such as the budget but vote on other things on a case by case basis
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What is a minority government?
A government with less than 50% of the votes
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What is a minimal winning coalition?
Contains the smallest number of parties which together can secure a parliamentary majority
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Which governments last the shortest time in Europe?
Minority coalitions
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Which governments last the longest?
Single party majority
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In presidential systems, how many elections are held?
Two
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What are the two elections held in a presidential system for?
One for the legislature, one for the executive
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What is the key element that there is in presidential systems that there is not in parliamentary systems?
Separation of powers
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Can the legislature dismiss the executive in a presidential system?
No
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Can the legislature dismiss the executive in a parliamentary system?
Yes
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How can the legislature dismiss the executive in a parliamentary system?
Vote of no confidence
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Can the executive dismiss the legislature in a presidential system?
No
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Why can't the legislature dismiss the executive in a presidential system?
The executive has it's own mandate and was directly elected by the people
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Who nominates cabinet in a presidential system?
The president
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Can the cabinet members be members of the legislature in a presidential system?
No
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Can the cabinet members be members of the legislature in a parliamentary system?
Yes
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In which governmental system is a divided government possible?
Presidential system
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What is the only way that the legislature can remove the executive?
Impeachment
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How can the executive remove the legislature in parliamentary systems?
Call new elections
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What is divided government in presidential systems?
Where the president does not have a majority in the legislature and struggles to get policies passed
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What are the two functions of elections in a parliamentary system?
To decide on the executive and choose an MP
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How many elections are there in a parliamentary system?
One significant one
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Do you need to have elections for a new PM in a parliamentary system?
No
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Why does the PM need the support of the legislature in parliamentary systems?
They run the risk of a vote of no confidence
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Give an example of a country which uses investiture votes
Germany
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What is an investiture vote?
A formal affirmative vote in parliament by which a majority demonstrates its confidence in the proposed new cabinet after an election
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What is the issue with a vote of investiture?
They never usually fail as the electorate would have only just voted the parliament in and if there were to be an issue there would be a vote of no confidence instead
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What article must a country invoke to leave the EU?
Article 50
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What electoral system does Germany use?
MMP
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Who researched the role of societal cleavages in political parties?
Lipset and Rokkan
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What is Duverger's law?
That a majoritarian system produces a two party system
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What are the key features of a cleavage?
Expressed in organisational terms, collective identity and have to do with societal position
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Give examples of cleavages
Church-state cleavage, rural-urban cleavage, class cleavage and centre-periphery cleavage
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What is the economic left?
State intervention
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What is the economic right?
Free market economy
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What was the conclusion of Lipset and Rokkan?
That cleavages explain why political systems in countries look the way they do
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What does TAN stand for?
Totalitarian, Authoritarian Nationalistic
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What is the new politics dimension?
Conflict between Green/Liberal parties and TAN parties
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What are the two axis of the quadrant we have studied?
Economic left/right and new politics dimension
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Who suggested the New Politics Dimension?
Inglehart
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What are the party families on the left?
Communists, social democrats and greens
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What are the main features of social democracy?
Acceptance of a capitalist economy coupled with the existence of a welfare state
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What are party families on the right?
Far right, conservative, christian democrats, liberals
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Who created the consensus/westminster model?
Lijphart
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What kind of decision making occurs in consensus countries?
Consensual, bargaining etc
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What kind of decision making occurs in westminster countries?
Executive decisions
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In a westminster country, how many parties are usually in the executive?
One
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In consensus countries, how many parties are usually in the executive?
Multiple
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Give examples of westminster countries
UK, New Zealand and Barbados
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Give examples of consensus countries
EU countries, Belgium, Germany
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Give an example of a mixed country
France
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In westminster countries, what body is dominant?
The executive
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In westminster countries what type of party system is there?
Two party
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In a westminster country, what type of electoral system is used?
A majoritarian one
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In a westminster country, how are interest groups organised?
Pluralist
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In a consensus country, is there a dominant body?
No, equal executive and legislature
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What type of party system is there in a consensus country?
Multi-party
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In a consensus country, what electoral system is used?
PR
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How are interest groups organised in consensus countries?
Corporistically
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How are parliamentary chambers organised in westminster countries?
Unicameral
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How flexible is the constitution in a westminster country?
Flexible
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How much power does the judiciary have in a westminster model?
Parliament is sovereign
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How dependent or otherwise is the central bank in westminster countries?
Dependent
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What type of government is there in a westminster country?
Centralised-unitary
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What type of government is there in a consensus country?
Decentralised-federal
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How are the parliamentary chambers organised in a consensus country?
Balanced bicameral
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How flexible is the constitution in a consensus country?
Rigid
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How powerful is the judiciary in consensus countries?
Has the power of judiciary review
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How dependent is the central bank in consensus countries?
Independent
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What is the UK's central bank?
Bank of England
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What percentage of people voted for brexit?
52%
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What is dealignment?
The process of a large group of the electorate abandoning their party identification and partisan affiliation without developing a new one
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Who came up with the three models of welfare state?
Esping-Andersen
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What is a welfare state?
Refers to the set of interventions organised by the state which are aimed at guaranteeing the provision of a minimum level of services to the population via a system of social protection
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What are the names of the three models of welfare state?
Anglo-Saxon, Christian-Democratic and Scandinavian
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What are the key features of the anglo-saxon model?
Low level of state spending, high level of inequality and lack of expenditure on social protectio
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What are the key features of the nordic model?
High taxes, high participation of women in the labour market, high standard of living, high confidence in system and high income redictribution
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What are the key features of the Christian-Democratic model?
Low level of women participating in the labour market, dependency on social contributions not taxes, higher levels of unemployment and reasonable wealth redistribution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a grand coalition?

Back

A coalition of the two biggest parties

Card 3

Front

What is a rainbow coalition?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a confidence and supply arrangement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a minority government?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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