Plate Tectonics Definitions

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Material ejected from volcanoes which is rich in silica, very viscous, explosive and forms cones at destructive plate margins.
Acid Lava
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Volcano currently erupting.
Active
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Layer below the lithosphere mainly in the mantle where seismic waves decrease with depth probably as a result of high temperature causing rock deformation.
Asthenosphere
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Earthquakes that follow the largest shock of an earthquake sequence.
Aftershocks
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Tiny lava fragments - unconsolidated fine grained material ejected from crater of volcano.
Ash
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The largest and deepest mass of igneous rock forced into the crust.
Batholith
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A narrow zone defined by earthquake foci and tens of kilometres thick dipping from the surface under the Earth's crust.
Benioff Zone
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Rapidly cooled larger blocks of molten lava.
Bomb
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Huge circular shaped basin.
Caldera
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Where two plates move towards each other. One plate is forced down and melts, the other is forced over it.
Subduction zone
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Steep sided volcano with layers of ash and lava at destructive plate margins.
Composite cone
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Conical landform.
Cone
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Plates meeting at an oblique angle, with horizontal movement e.g. California.
Conservative margin
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Produces features such as ocean ridges, shield volcano, fissures, faults and rift valleys.
Constructive margin
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The theory that horizontal movement of the earth's surface causes slow relative movements of the continent toward or away from one another.
Continental drift
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The innermost part of the Earth.
Core
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Vent at the summit of a volcano.
Crater
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The outermost layer of the Earth, ranging from about 10-65km in thickness worldwide.
Crust
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Produces features such as composite volcanoes, fold mountains, deep sea trenches and island arcs e.g. the Caribbean.
Destructive margin
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Volcano which is not active nor inert (sleeping).
Dormant
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A vertical wall-like structure of igneous rock cutting across layers of rocks, where magma is forced up through vertical fissures.
Dyke
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The location on the surface, directly above the focus.
Epicentre
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Old inert volcano.
Extinct
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Magma which forces its way to the Earth's surface and erupts as lava, from volcanoes or fissures forming cones or plateaus. Also minor features such as geysers, hot springs and boiling mud pools.
Extrusive vulcanicity
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A fracture or zone of fractures in rock along which the two sides have been displaced relative to each other.
Fault
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Refers to the depth of an earthquake hypocentre.
Focal depth
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The location, in the crust of the earthquake, frequently at 70km depth.
Focus
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Formed where subduction zones border continents. Long parallel ranges separated by high plateaus and deep valleys e.g. the Alps.
Fold mountain
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A source of unpredictable, unplanned danger to people.
Hazard
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Points in the oceans where molten material from the mantle breaks through to the surface, caused by convectional plumes e.g. Hawaiian Islands.
Hot spot
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Magma injected into the crust which fails to reach the surface, unlike a volcano, which cools slowly underground forming batholiths, laccoliths, dykes and sills.
Intrusive vulcanicity
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Molten material from converging oceanic crusts rises as lava, creating a circular pattern of volcanic islands.
Island arc
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Line drawn on maps to show equal strength of earthquake waves.
Isoseismal line
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Fine unconsolidated material influenced by rainfall becomes like a fluid.
Lahars
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Magma which forces its way to the Earth's surface and erupts.
Lava
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A process by which water-saturated sediment temporarily loses strength and acts like a fluid.
Liquefaction
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Outer rigid she;; of Earth composing of the crust and the upper mantle.
Lithosphere
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The narrow crust of the earth which forms the outer layer is made of at least 16 rigid areas called plates.
Lithospheric plate
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Surface seismic waves which cause the ground to move sideways.
Love wave
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Material ejected from volcanoes.
Magma
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The molten layer of rock beneath the crust.
Mantle
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Ash flow.
Pyroclastic flow
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Black volcanic glass.
Obsidian
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A deep area 5,000 to 11,000m deep created at a subduction zone.
Oceanic trench
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The process of fold mountain building by horizontal folding of sediments followed by vertical uplift.
Orogenesis
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The study of geological reversals of the polarity of the Earth.
Palaeomagnetism
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Smaller side-vent on the flank of a volcano where lava is diverted.
Parasitic cone
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Vertical passage from magma chamber to vent.
Pipe
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Solidified mass of rock where lava has cooled in vent.
Plug
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Porous and permeable rocks store water underground and if these are in a seismically active zone, the water in pores may be under pressure.
Pore water pressure
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Longitudinal waves are fastest to arrive in earthquakes.
Primary wave
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Light rock with vesicles (bubbles) formed in lava.
Pumice
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Bomb of lava rapidly ejected from a volcano.
Pyroclastic material
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Surface seismic waves which cause the round to move up and down.
Rayleigh wave
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The average period of time between earthquakes in a seismic region.
Recurrence interval
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A scale to measure the magnitude of earthquakes. It is a logarithmic scale where 6.0 is 10 times greater than 5.0.
Richter scale
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Forms where two parallel down faults have formed a trough, which are caused by the intense doming up of magma in the crust below.
Rift valley
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A zone of volcanoes, earthquakes, and mountain-building encircling the Pacific Ocean formed where plates collide.
Ring of Fire
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The mechanism by which new sea floor crust is created at ridges in divergence zones and adjacent plates are moved apart to make room.
Sea-floor spreading
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Transverse waves are slower and arrive second in earthquakes. Also known as S waves.
Secondary waves
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The study of earthquake tremors and their power.
Seismography
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A horizontal structure of igneous rock continuous with layers of rocks, where magma is forced along bedding planes.
Sill
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Seismic caused sea waves 95% caused by earthquakes and few by volcanoes under the sea.
Tsunami
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Opening at the summit of a volcano through which material is ejected.
Vent
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Scientist who thought that the continents where once one super continent.
Wegener
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Volcano currently erupting.

Back

Active

Card 3

Front

Layer below the lithosphere mainly in the mantle where seismic waves decrease with depth probably as a result of high temperature causing rock deformation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Earthquakes that follow the largest shock of an earthquake sequence.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Tiny lava fragments - unconsolidated fine grained material ejected from crater of volcano.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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