Plant responses

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What are biotic components?
Components of the environment that are living
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What are abiotic components?
Components of the environment that are not living
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Why is it important that plants and animals respond to the environment?
So that they can survive long enough to reproduce
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What are 3 chemical defences that plants employ when threatened by herbivores?
Tannins, Alkaloids + Pheromones
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What are tannins?
Bitter tasting phenolic compounds found in the upper epidermis of leaves
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What are alkaloids?
Amino acid derived compound that have important physiological effects on animals; nicotine, morphine, quinine and strychnine
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What are pheromones?
Chemicals released by one living thing that effects the physiology and behaviour of another living thing
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What are tropisms?
Directional growth responses of plants towards (+) or away (-) from the stimulus
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What are nastic repsonses?
Non-directional responses to external stimuli
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What is a phototropic response?
A shoot grows towards the light (positive), enabling them to photosynthesise
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What is a gravitropic response?
Roots grow towards the pull of gravity anchoring them into the soil and allowing them to uptake water and mineral ions
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What is chemotropism?
Pollen tubes of a flower grow down the style, attracted by chemicals, towards the ovary where fertilisation occurs
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What is thigmotropism?
Shoots of climbing plants wind around another plant or solid structure for support
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What do plant hormones do?
Coordinate/control plant responses to environmental stimuli
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Where are plant hormones produced in the plant?
In a variety of tissues- they travel to target cells
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How do hormones move around the plant?
Active transport, diffusion, mass flow in the phloem sap or xylem vessel
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What effects do cytokinins have on plants?
They promote cell division and expansion, delay leaf ageing (senescence) and overcome apical dominance
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What effects does abscisic acid have on plants?
They inhibit cell germination and growth and cause the stomata to close when there's low water availablility
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What effects do auxins have on plants?
They promote cell elongation but inhibit lateral bud growth and leaf abscission (fall)
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What effects do gibberellins have on plants?
They promote seed germination and the growth of stems
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What effects do ethene have on plants?
Promote fruit rippening
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What is apical dominance?
Inhibition of lateral bud growth in the shoot due to chemicals produced by the apical bud
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What is an auxin?
A plant hormone that is responsible for regulating plant growth
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are abiotic components?

Back

Components of the environment that are not living

Card 3

Front

Why is it important that plants and animals respond to the environment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are 3 chemical defences that plants employ when threatened by herbivores?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are tannins?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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