Physics - Atom structure and radiation

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What is an atom made of?
A nucleus containing protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons.
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What are isotopes?
Atoms that have the same number of electrons and protons, but different numbers of protons.
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What is the relative mass of protons, neutrons and electrons respectivey?
1, 1, almost 0
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What is the relative charge of protons, neutrons and electrons respectivey?
+1, 0, -1
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What two sources does radiation come from?
Natural and artificial.
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Describe alpha radiation?
Consists of alpha particles, identical to the nucleus of a helium atom.
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Describe beta radiation?
Consists of high energy electrons emitted from the nucleus.
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Describe gamma radiation?
Has a very short wave lengh but a high frequency. Electromagnetic radiation.
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Whis radiation is most penetrating?
Gamma.
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Which radiation is least penetrating?
Alpha.
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What is teh half-life?
The time taken for the number of unstable nuclei to drop to half the original amount.
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When travelling through an electromagnetic field what happens to radiation?
It is deflected.
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The radiations have different charges, what does this mean?
They are deflected in different directions.
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What happens when radiation collides with the molecules in living cells?
It can damage them (ionisation).
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Which radiation is most dangerous when if the radioactive source is inside the body and why?
Alpha because they are easily absorbed.
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Which radiation is least dangerous when if the radioactive source is outside the body and why?
Alpha because it is unlikely to reach the living cells inside the body.
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What can radiation be used for?
Smoke detectors (alpha), sterilising medical instruments (gamma), killing cancer cells (high doses of gamma), datng rocks and materials, chemical tracers in chemial dagnosis (radioactive isotopes), measuring thickness of materials in a paper factory.
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What nuclear reaction do nuclear reactors use?
Nuclear fission.
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What is nuclear fission?
The process of splitting a nucleus.
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What are the isotopes usually used in fission?
Uranium 235 and plutanium 239.
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For fission to happen, what must the the isotopes first do?
Absorb a neutron.
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What happens when the isotopes absorb a neutron?
The nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei. Two.three neutrons are reeased and some energy is released.
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What might happen to the neutron released?
It may hit a nucleus causing it to split, causing a chain reaction.
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Where does nuclear fusion happen?
In the sun and other stars,.
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What does nuclear fusion involve and what is released?
Two atomic nuclei joining to make a large nucleus. Energy is released which is how the energy in the sun and stars releaee energy.
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Which of the two nuclear reactions releases the most energy?
Nuclar fusion.
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Which of the two nuclear reactions is bbenn experimented for generation electricity?
Nuclear fusion.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are isotopes?

Back

Atoms that have the same number of electrons and protons, but different numbers of protons.

Card 3

Front

What is the relative mass of protons, neutrons and electrons respectivey?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the relative charge of protons, neutrons and electrons respectivey?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What two sources does radiation come from?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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