# physics

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What provides the force to slow an object travelling up a slope down?
Gravity/weight/component of weight
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name 3 Renewable source of energy
wind/wave/tidal/geothermal/biomass/hydro(electric)/solar
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name 3 non-Renewable source of energy
any fossil fuel/nuclear/uranium/peat
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To which part of the electromagnetic spectrum does the heat radiation belong?
Infra-red
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State one advantage and one disadvantage of the use of the solar panel.
Advantage – free (after the initial cost)/renewable non polluting saves fossil fuels [1] Disadvantage – produces less electricity in the winter output not constant low efficiency expensive to install
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A family of four would use on average 54 000 kJ of electrical energy per day. State two things they could do to make up the difference between what the solar panel produces and what they need
Install another panel [1] By named method Name two alternatives Reduce their present energy usage/switch off appliances Connect to the mains/use gas/alternative energy source Name source, e.g. wind, hydroelectric
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State the Principle of Conservation of Momentum as it applies to collisions.
Momentum before a collision equals the momentum after a collision
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Explain, carefully, how a crumple zone makes it safer for the people inside the car when it is brought to a stop during a collision.
Crumple zone collapses or material collapses easily or car crumples Car stops in a longer time or in a longer distance Momentum change = force × time or Energy change = force × distance So the force is reduced Less chance of injury to passengers
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Ice has a density of 0.9 g/cm3 and water has density of 1.0 g/cm3. What does this tell you about the spacing of the molecules in the two states?
Ice molecules are further apart than water molecules [1] 10 Comparison is required
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The stone block weighs much more than the force the man uses to raise it. Explain carefully how the lever allows him to raise the stone block.
Distance pivot to effort greater than that from pivot to load Since moment = force × distance Distance identified as perpendicular The effort can give the same/larger moment than load
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State two possible uses of gamma radiation.
Cancer treatment/sterilisation of equipment [1] Preserving food/fertiliser development [1] [2] Medical imaging/PET scans
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Describe how the electrons are arranged in the “Plum Pudding” model of the atom and the present Rutherford-Bohr model.
Plum Pudding – electrons in a sphere of positive charge [1] to imply lack of order Rutherford-Bohr – electrons in orbit around the nucleus [1] [2] labelled diagram acceptable
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State two effects that an unbalanced force can have on an object
Object accelerating or decelerating or change in speed/velocity or moves [1] change of direction/topples change of shape [1]
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What is a renewable energy source?
Unlimited supply/suitable alternative/never runs out/replaced in a lifetime
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(iv) What has happened to the other 15% of the potential energy?
Converted to heat or sound – or non-useful forms
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Explain the difference between a luminous and a non-luminous object
Luminous give out their own light [1] Non-luminous reflect light, do not emit light or are seen by reflected light [1]
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Describe one use of optical fibres in medicine, making clear the special properties of the fibre that make it suitable for the use described.
Endoscope or keyhole surgery/looking directly/any-oscopy into the body [1] Takes light in and brings image out [1] Fibre transmits light by total internal reflection [1] or TIR Flexible/small/thin/bendy
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a transformer may be described as a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another. Describe how it does this.
Changing current/magnetic field (in one coil) [1] induces/produces/makes a current or voltage in the other coil [1]
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State where step-up and step-down transformers are used in the transmission of electricity to consumers
Step up at the power station end [1] Step down at the consumer end [1]
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What is 27 000 light years?
The distance from Earth to centre of galaxy or distance travelled by light in 27 000 years
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describe the major difference between these two models. In the Heliocentric Model,and In the Geocentric Model
Heliocentric – planets orbit the sun/Sun at the centre (of the solar system) [1] universe [0] Geocentric – Earth at the centre (of the solar system) [1]
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Give one scientific observation which can be explained well by the Heliocentric Model and cannot be satisfactorily explained by the Geocentric Model.
The retrograde motion of the planets – looping of the planets
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When the Heliocentric Model was first proposed it experienced considerable opposition. Where did most of this opposition come from?
The Church/The Pope/Religion/Christian
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In the Northern Hemisphere it is generally warmer in summer than it is in winter. Explain carefully why this is so
In the summer more energy per square metre falls on the Earth or the reverse in the winter [1] or longer time in sky or high in the sky [1] * N. Hemisphere tilt towards the sun [1] so longer time in sky [1] or more energy/m2 [1] [2] higher in th
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Is the gravitational force between Phobos and Mars increasing, decreasing or remaining constant as Phobos orbits Mars? Give a reason for your answer.
Increasing gravitational force [1] Gravitational force increases as distance decreases [1]
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State the two conditions required for a ray of light to undergo total internal reflection as it moves from one substance to another.
Light from glass (water) to air/more dense into a less dense or from low speed material to higher speed material [1] Angle of incidence greater than critical angle
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Jack rubs a plastic comb on his jacket sleeve and it gains a negative electrical charge. He then uses the comb to pick up small pieces of paper as shown in the photograph. Explain, in detail, how the comb acquires a negative charge and how it is abl
Electrons are transferred from jacket to comb Negative charge on comb repels electrons in the paper Paper nearer the comb is now positive Opposite/unlike charges then attract
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The diagram below shows a bar magnet and a coil of wire. The coil of wire is connected to a sensitive ammeter which reads zero when the pointer is in the middle. Describe, carefully, what is observed when the magnet is moved slowly into the
1. A momentary deflection when magnet moved in 2. No deflection when magnet stationary 3. A momentary deflection when magnet moved out 4. When moved out deflection is larger 5. Direction is opposite
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Describe and explain, briefly, the nebular model for the formation of the solar system. In your answer you should give one piece of evidence that supports the model.
1. Gas and dust cloud shrinks 2. This is due to gravity 3. It heats up or fusion occurs 4. Eventually hot enough for a star to shine 5. Small clumps form the planets
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Galaxies are moving apart. What observation provides information for this conclusion?
The light from the galaxy is shifted to longer wavelengths or is red shifted
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What is meant by the term Big Freeze?
The galaxies continue to move apart (forever) or Universe/Space continues to expand [1] Temperature of the Universe falls
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What force plays an important role in the Big Crunch model and how does it bring about the Big Crunch?
Gravity [1] pulls the galaxies back/stops Space/Universe expanding Universe collapses on itself, collapses to singularity
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

name 3 Renewable source of energy

#### Back

wind/wave/tidal/geothermal/biomass/hydro(electric)/solar

### Card 3

#### Front

name 3 non-Renewable source of energy

### Card 4

#### Front

To which part of the electromagnetic spectrum does the heat radiation belong?

### Card 5

#### Front

State one advantage and one disadvantage of the use of the solar panel.