# physics

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Acceleration
The rate of change of velocity, acceleration depends on the mass of the object and the force applied.
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Amplitude
The maximum displacement from the mean position in a transverse wave. In sound it is the measure of the loudness of the sound.
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Attraction
A force, which occurs between two charged objects if they have dissimilar charges, for example 'positive and negative' (coming together force)
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Balanced
In electricity when there is an equal number of positive and negative charges present on an object.
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Balanced
When two things for example forces are equal, so they cancel each other out.
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Big Bang
The accepted theory of how the Universe began, which states that all matter was created in an explosion from a single point
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Biofuel
Energy sources derived from recently living organic matter for example biodiesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats and can be used in some cars. Bioethanol is produced from the fermentation of some crops for example corn or sugarcane.
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Charges
These are either positive or negative; they exert forces on one another.
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Chemical
Form of energy, things which release energy as a result of a chemical reaction, for example burning of a fuel, respiration of food in the body, or the chemicals in a battery.
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Compression
Solid objects can be compressed (squashed) if forces are applied to them.
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Condensation
When a vapour turns to a liquid on cooling, heat is given out during this change.
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Conduction
When heat energy is moved because the vibrating particles in a solid conductor pass it on, metals are the best conductors.
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Convection
When heat energy is moved because of the movement of more energetic particles in liquids and gases.
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Diffracted
This word describes the circular bending of waves when they pass through a small gap.
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Doppler effect
This phenomenon is the observed change in wavelength and frequency of waves produced from a moving object. The Doppler effect is observed when an ambulance passes and overtakes you.
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Echoes
These are reflections of sound waves.
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Efficiency
When energy is transferred only part of it may be usefully transferred, the rest is ‘wasted’.
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Efficiency equation
= useful energy out/total energy in (x100%) Efficiency = useful power out/total power in (x100%)
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Electrical
Energy possessed by electrical charge as it moves around a circuit.
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Electrical
Power This is the amount of electrical energy an appliance transfers. It depends on how long the appliance is switched on and its power rating. P is power and is measure in units called kilowatts, kW.
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Electromagnetic Spectrum (EMS)
An important and diverse family of waves, which include radio waves as well as gamma waves, they have many important uses including communication and medical.
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Emission
Something, which is given out.
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Energy
An object has energy if it is able to do something or make something happen, unit is joules (J)
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Evaporation
The loss of the most energetic particles from the surface of a liquid, it depends on the surface area of the water, temperature, and humidity and movement of the surrounding air.
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Fossil fuel
Chemical energy sources derived from the remains of ancient biomass, wood turns into coal, and plankton turns into natural gas and crude oil. The fuels are burnt to heat water or air.
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Frequency
The number of waves per second measured in a unit called hertz (HZ). One hertz means one wave in one second.
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Friction
A type of force, which particularly effects motion, for example air resistance on a falling parachute.
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A radioactive emission with high penetrating power which can be blocked by concrete or lead, it is also a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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Geothermal
An energy source which uses the heat energy from hot rocks which are close to the surface of the Earth. The energy can be utilized to heat water and generate electricity.
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Gravitational energy
Energy that an object possesses because it is raised above the ground, for example the gravitational energy of the raised water in a hydro-electric dam.
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Gravitational-potential energy
The energy an object possesses because of its position.
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Gravity
The force of attraction between two objects
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Hertz (Hz)
The unit of frequency.
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Infrared
Electromagnetic waves which are given off by hot bodies or objects.
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Insulation
Material, which can reduce heat loss, for example fibreglass in loft insulation.
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Insulation
Material for example plastic, which doesn't conduct electricity. (Like the plastic sheathing in cables).
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Joules
This is the unit of energy (J).
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Kilowatt
Power is measure in this unit; 1000 watts are equal to 1 kW.
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Kilowatt-hour (kWh)
The unit of electrical energy transferred by an electrical appliance.
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Kinetic energy
Form of energy possessed by objects, which are in motion.
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Longitudinal
A type of wave where particles move from side to side for example sound. This movement is parallel to the direction in which the energy moves.
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Newton (N)
The unit of force.
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Non-renewable
Energy sources which are finite, for example coal, oil, gas.
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Payback time
This phrase is used to describe how long it takes a customer to pay for an appliance with any savings that have been made by using the equipment.
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Radiation is one way in which heat is moved
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Rarefaction A place on a longitudinal wave where the density is the least. For example, in sound waves where the air is the most spread out.
A place on a longitudinal wave where the density is the least. For example, in sound waves where the air is the most spread out.
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Red shift This is evidence to support the big bang theory. When we view the light from distant stars it contains more wavelengths from the red end of the spectrum, the furthest and fastest stars have show the biggest red shift.
This is evidence to support the big bang theory. When we view the light from distant stars it contains more wavelengths from the red end of the spectrum, the furthest and fastest stars have show the biggest red shift.
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Reflection
A property of waves including light and sound, the reflection of light is the change in direction of the light when it strikes a surface or mirror.
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Refraction
A property of waves, including light and sound, the refraction of light is the change in direction of the light when it passes from one medium to another.
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Renewable
Energy resources, which are not finite, for example solar, tidal, hydroelectric, wave, wind.
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Sankey diagram
A diagram, which is used to illustrate the energy transfers within a system or appliance.
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Specific Heat Capacity
This means the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of a substance by one degree Celsius, the specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J/kgC
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Speed equation
The distance travelled by an object in a certain amount of time, speed (m\s) = distance (m) divided by time taken (s). (A measure of how fast something is travelling).
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Transformer
These are devices, which are used to increase (step up) or reduce (step down) the voltage of an A.C. supply, which is fed into them, it makes the transmission more efficient.
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Transverse
A type of wave where particles move up and down for example water. This movement is at right angles to the direction in which the energy moves.
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Turbine
An important piece of equipment found in power stations. Various methods are used to make it spin or turn
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U-value
U-values measure how effective a material is as an insulator. The lower the U-value, the better the material is as an insulator.
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Vacuum
A place where there is no matter.
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Velocity
The speed of an object in a particular direction
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Volt (V)
The unit of voltage.
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Voltage
An electricity term, which describes the amount of energy, carried by the current.
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Voltmeter
A device used to measure voltage in series and parallel circuits.
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Volume
This is a measure of the amount of physical space an object possesses, & is measure in units of m3 or cm3.
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Watt (W)
The unit of power.
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Wave equation
All waves obey the wave equation: v = f x l. Where v is speed in metres per second, m/s; f is frequency in hertz, Hz and l is wavelength in metres, (m)
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Wavelength
The distance (m) between consecutive crests or troughs in a transverse wave. Measure in metre units
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

Amplitude

#### Back

The maximum displacement from the mean position in a transverse wave. In sound it is the measure of the loudness of the sound.

Attraction

Balanced

Balanced