Pathogens

Gram negative
Bacteria with a double membrane, e.g. e coli
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Gram positive
Bacteria with a single membrane which contains a huge peptidoglycan layer, e.g. Staph aureus
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Penicillin
The antibiotic that prevents the synthesis of peptidoglycan
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Gram stain
The process of applying chemicals (crystal violet, iodine, alcohol wash, safranin) to distinguish between gram positive and gram negative bacterium
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Purple
The colour the membrane of gram positive bacterium become after gram staining
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Pink
The colour the membrane of gram negative bacterium become
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Fungi
Eukaryotic organisms that can be singe or multi-cellular (i.e. have a network of hyphae that forms a mycelium), have a cell wall containing chitin
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Athlete's foot
An example of a fungal infection
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Thrush
An example of a fungal infection
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Viruses
Pathogens consisting of a shell of protein (capsid) surrounding nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA). They use the host cell machinery to reproduce
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Bacteriophage
A virus which parasitises a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside of it
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Parasites
Organisms that live on/in another host and derive nutrition without benefit to the host
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Protozoa
A single-celled eukaryotic pathogen. It can be a parasite and can be large (visible to the naked eye)
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Helminth
A multi-cellular and eukaryotic pathogen. Examples: tapeworms, flukeworms, nematodes
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Synergy
The combined effect of two antibiotics is greater than each drug alone
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Antagonism
The combined effect of two antibiotics is less than each drug alone
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Indifference
Each antibiotic drug is no different alone or together
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Lipoteichoic acid
A component of gram positive bacterial cell membranes that can lead to septic shock
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Lipopolysaccharide
A component of gram negative bacterial cell outer membranes which provides protection to the cell. It contains lipid A which is very toxic - it activates a major immune response which can cause massive inflammation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Bacteria with a single membrane which contains a huge peptidoglycan layer, e.g. Staph aureus

Back

Gram positive

Card 3

Front

The antibiotic that prevents the synthesis of peptidoglycan

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The process of applying chemicals (crystal violet, iodine, alcohol wash, safranin) to distinguish between gram positive and gram negative bacterium

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The colour the membrane of gram positive bacterium become after gram staining

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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