paper 1 topic 3 infection and response

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what is health?
The state of physical and mental well-being
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what factors can have an impact on physical and mental health?
DIET,stress and life situations
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how do health problems interact ( 3 things)
viruses in living cells can be triggers to cancer, immune reations to a pathogen can cause asthma, and physical health problems can lead to mental health
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how can pathogens be spread?
water, air and direct contact
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why do bacteria make us ill?
They produce toxins that damage tissues
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how do viruses make us feel ill?
They live in the host (us) and reproduce which causes cell damage
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what is measles?
It is a viral disease that can cause blindness and brain damage as well as death
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What are the symptoms of measles?
Main ones include, fever and red skin rashes
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how is measles spread
through water droplets in sneezing and coughing
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how is hiv spread
by sexual contact and exchange of bodily fluids which can happen when drug users share needles
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what are symptoms of HIV?
a flu-like illness
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how does hiv damage us?
it attacks the body's immune cells
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what is tobacco mosaic virus?
It is a viral disease that affects many plants (tomatoes), the virus does not allow the plant to photosynthesize due to discoloration
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what is rose black spot?
It is a fungal disease where black spots grown on leaves, it affects the plants growth as the rate of photosynthesis is lowered
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how is rose black spot spread?
by water and wind
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how can you treat rose black spot?
BY removing the infected leaves and by fungicides
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what is salmonella
It is a bacterial disease transmitted by poorly cooked food
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how does the uk attempt to curb the salmonella outbreak
they vaccinate poultry
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what are symptoms of salmonella
vomiting diarrhoea, cramps and fever
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what is gonorrhoea?
an std
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what are the symptoms of gonorrhoea?
a thick yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis when urinating.
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How do you treat hiv
if you take antiretroviral drugs you can almost live as long as an uninfected person
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how do you treat gonorrhoea?
penicillin was commonly used until it became resistant
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how can you control the spread of gonorrhoea?
using a condom or treatment with antibiotics
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how can the spread of disease be reduced or prevented? (4 things)
being hygenic-washing hands, destroying vectors-using insecticides, isolating infected individuals and vaccination
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what is malaria caused by?
protists
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what are symptoms of malaria?
fever and this can be fatal
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how do you control the spread of malaria?
using mosquito nets and stopping mosquito from breeding
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how does the skin act as a barrier to pathogens?
it secretes antimicrobial substances
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how does hair and mucus act as a barrier to pathogen?
they trap particles
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how do the trachea and bronchi help prevent disease?
They secrete mucus to trap pathogens, the cilia push the mucus to the back of the throat where it can be swallowed
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how does the stomach help prevent disease
it has hydrochloric acid which kills pathogens that make it that far
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what happens when a pathogen enters the body
the immune system tries to destroy it
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list three ways white blood cells help to defend against pathogens
phagocytosis, antitoxin production and antibody production
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what are phagocytes
well there are two main types, macrophages and neutrophils, these inject the foreign materials and destroy them.
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what is phagocytosis
this is when the phagocytes actively seek out foreign microbes and kill them
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What shape is the nucleus of a neutrophil
tri-lobed
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what shape is the nucleus of magrophages
bean shaped
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how do macrophages alert the lympohcytes
they present antigens to the lymphocyte
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what is an anitgen
A protein of the surface of cells which can be recognised
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what are the 5 steps of phagocytosis?
1.the macrophage recognises the bacteria and its antigens 2.the macrophage folds its cell membrane around the bacteria 3. the bacteria is ingested and this is a phagolysome 4. lysomes fuse and digest the bacteria 5. the waste is released
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what are lymphocytes?
they produce antibodies
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what are the two types of t lymphocytes
t helper and t killer cells
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what do t helper cells do
they stay in the lymph nodes and help b cells
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what do t killer cells do
they seek out strangely acting cells and kill them
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what do b lymphocytes do
these cells produce antibodies and when something happens they rapidly repoduce by mitosis
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what are antibodies
They are proteins that travel in the blood and attach to a foreign cell
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how does the antibody send signals to the phagocytes
they bind to the antigen which sends a signal.
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what are memory cells
these are cells that are ready to produce an antibody quickly if a pathogen invade the body. they are stored in the lymph nodes for months or years
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how do you know if your immune system is working
if you get better, if cuts heal by themselves, if you dont get reinfected and when you get swollen glands
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what do swollen glands mean
this means that your b cells are rapidly dividing, some into antibodies and some into b plasma cells which by themselves secrete antibodies
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what is immunisation
the introduction of antigens into the body to stimulate an immune response
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what are the two types of vaccination
active and passive
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what is active immunisation?
this is when antigens from the pathogen are injected to induce antibody production
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what is passive immunisation?
when ready made antibodies from purified animals blood are injected
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what is injected in active immunisation
dead pathogens, fragments of pathogens and inactive live pathogens
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does immunity from active immunization last forever
it will be lost if no booster is injected as the body will think that the pathogen is no longer a threat
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when is passive immunisation used
only in emergencies
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will passive immunisation give any memory cells
no because ready made antibodies are being produced and no antigens
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when would you need passive immunisation
when bitten by a venomous snake
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how do you prevent bacterial growth
using chemicals, antiseptics and raising or lowering the temperature
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what do painkillers do
they relieve symptoms but they dont actually kill pathogens
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what do antibiotics do
they kill the bacteria whilst they are in your body
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why is it hard to find antiviral drugs
because the virus is in a human cell it is hard to find a drug that will kill viruses and not healthy tissues
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why is antibiotic resistance a problem
it means that until new strains are found there is no way to cure the disease
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what is digitalis
a heart drug from foxgloves
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what is aspirin
a painkiller from willow
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what is penicillin
a mould discovered by alex flemming
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what makes a medicine good
ESSS. effective- how well it works, safe- is the drug toxic, stable, it must be stored in home and successfully absorbed and excreted by our bodies
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how long can it take for a medicine to be in shelves
12 years
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what are double blind trials
this is when a group of volunteers is split into two . group 1 is given an already used drug as a placebo and group two is given the actual drug. no one knows who has been given the drug until the trial is over
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what are the four phases of clinical trials
in vitro, animal testing, human trials, international regulating bodies check it and then efficacy and safety is monitored
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what are monoclonal antibodies?
these are antibodies that are made from a single clone of b cells and bind to one specific antigen
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what is a hybridoma cell
this when a tumour cell and a specific b plasma cell bind to produce endless supplies of antibodies
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how do you make monoclonal antibodies
since theyre not naturally occuring in mammals scientists make them in labs with lymphocytes from amouse
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what are the five steps of monoclonal antibody production
1. a mouse is injected with a specific antigen 2. the mouse produces specific antibodies 3. a hybridoma is formed 4. this creates endless monoclonal antibodies 5. these can be purified and used to help humans
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how are mAbs used ?
pregnancy tests, research, to treat some cancers.
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why are mabs not as widely used
They have side effects such as nausea, headaches and itchy rashes
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how can plant diseases be detected
stunted growth, spots on leaves, rot, discolouration, pests ; aphids
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what causes stunted growth in plant
nitrate deficiency needed for proteins and amino acids
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what causes chlorosis in plants
magnesium deficiency needed to make chlorophyll
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what are physical defense responses that plants have
cellulose cells walls, waxy cuticle and bark
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what are chemical defense responses that plants have
poisons and antibacterial chemicals
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what are mechanical defense responses that plants have
thorns, mimicry and leaves that droop or curl when touches
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what factors can have an impact on physical and mental health?

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Card 3

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how do health problems interact ( 3 things)

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Card 4

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how can pathogens be spread?

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Card 5

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why do bacteria make us ill?

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