P1 Energy Transfer

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  • Created by: Hope
  • Created on: 26-05-14 13:59
How can heat be transferred?
Conduction, convection and radiation
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What kind of surfaces are best for absorbing heat energy?
Dark, matt surfaces
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Complete this sentence: The hotter an object is....
The most infared radiation it emits
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What is infared radiation?
An electromagnetic wave
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Complete this sentence: Unlike conduction and convection, radiation can...
Pass through vaccums
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What does the kinetic particle theory explain?
The properties of different states of matter
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What is the kinetic particle theory for solids?
They have a fixed shape, particles cant flow, cannot be compressed or squashed
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What is the kinetic particle theory for liquids?
They flow and take shape of their container, particles move around eachother, cannot be compressed or squashed
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What is the kinetic particle theory for gases?
Flow and completely fill container, particles move quickly in all direction, can be compressed and squahsed - lots of space
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What are the good and bad conductors of heat?
Metals are good, non metals and gases are bad
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What are poor conductors of heat called?
Insulators
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Complete this sentence: Heat energy is conducted.....
From the hot end of an object to the cold end
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Explain in terms of electrons what happens during conduction?
They leave their atoms and move about in the metal as free electrons, the parts of atoms left behind are now charged ions
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Explain in terms of ions what happens during conduction?
They are packed tightly together and vibrate continually, the hotter the metal the more kinetic energy
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Explain in terms of kinetic energy what happens during conduction?
It is transferred from the hot parts to the cooler parts by free electrons which move through the metal inbetween ions
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What are fluids?
Gases and liquids
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When does convection occur?
When particles with a lot of heat energy in a liquid or gas move to take the place of particles with less heat energy
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What happens to liquids and gases when they are heated?
They expand- because the particles in fluids move faster when heated
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How does convection occur?
The fluids in hot areas is less dense than fluids in cold areas, so it rises to the cold areas, then the denser cold fluids fall into warm areas
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What is evaporation?
A liquid changing into a gas
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What is condensation?
A gas changing into a liquid
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How does evaporation work?
The particles in the liquid absorb the heat energy and become a gas
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How does condensation work?
Some gas particles might not have enough energy to remain as seperate particles (if cooled down) they come together and form bonds
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Complete this sentence: The particles in liquids and gases have...
Different energies
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What factors effect rate of condensation?
If the temperature of the gas is decreases
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What factors effect the rate of evaporation?
If temperature of liquid is increased, the surface area of liquid is increased and air is moving over surface of liquid
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Complete this sentence: The bigger difference int he temperature between an object and its surroundings...
The greater the rate at which heat energy is transferred
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What factors affect the rate at which an object transfers energy by heating?
Surface area and volume of the object, material used to make the object, Nature of the surface that the object is touching
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What are the adaptations of small animals?
A large surface area compared to their volume, they have to eat a lot in order to replace energy lost (they loose a lot of heat)
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What are the adaptations of large animals?
Small surface area compared to their volume, they lose heat to surrounding more slowly and have difficulty avioding over heating
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How can engineers help to transfer heat efficently?
Create machines with a large surface area compared to volume
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What do U-Values do?
Measure how effective a material is as an insulator
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What do the readings on a U-Value mean?
The lower the U-Value the better the material is as an insulator
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What is payback time?
The payback time of an energy saving solution (double glazing/extra insulation) is a measure of how cost-effective it is
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How do solar panels work?
Cold water is pumped into the solar panel where it heats up and goes to a storage tank, a pump pushes the cold water through pipes in solar panel, water is heated by the sun and returns to tank
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What are the advantages of solar panels?
Solar energy is renewable, no harmful polluting gases
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What are the disadvantages of solar panels?
Only produce a lot of energy in very sunny climates, do not work at night
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What is heat?
The measure of the thermal energy contained in an object
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What is heat measured ?
Joules
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What kind of surfaces are best for absorbing heat energy?

Back

Dark, matt surfaces

Card 3

Front

Complete this sentence: The hotter an object is....

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is infared radiation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Complete this sentence: Unlike conduction and convection, radiation can...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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