Outline and evaluate hormonal mechanisms in human aggression

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Swaab (2009)- AO1
Sex hormones determine the sexually differentiated way the foetal brain develops, shaping child's gender identity, cognition and aggression.
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Matsuda et al (2012)- AO1
Sex hormones may act on gene switches turning on or off a cascade of genes in neurons, that will shape male and female brains in different ways e.g. testosterone receptors in amygdala and hypothalamus- contribute to high physical aggression in men
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Trainor et al (2009)- A01
Perinatal exposure to androgens influences the expression and distribution of serotonin receptors, known for their role in inhibiting aggression
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Mehta and Beer (2009) -AO2
Testorone increases the propensity toward aggression because of reduced activation of the neural circuitary of impulse control and self regulation
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Trainor et al (2009)- A02
Androgens also modulate serotonin agonist effects on aggression.
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Swaab (2009)- AO2
Supports foetal development of brain sex. Mumma's testosterone levels during pregnancy correlate with daughter's sex typical behaviour as an adult- correlation stronger with the daughter's adult testosterone level.- shape adult aggression
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Testosterone role in aggression
Men have 8 times higher levels of testosterone than women and are more physically aggressive. Emergence of aggression and violence at puberty coincides with increased secretion of sex hormone concentrations- consistent that testost. causes aggression
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Huston et al (2007)
Men with high levels of testosterone often perform well in competitive tasks but poorly in cooperative tasks
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Dabbs (1997)
Levels of testosterone positively correlated with degree of violence of crimes committed by female prisoners
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Gray et al (2007)
Lower testosterone levels as well as higher prolactin levels in human fathers, who are gentler with their babies. - association between hormone levels and aggression in humans
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Gammie et al (2007)
Relationships among levels of oestrogen, progestins, prolactin and corticotropin-releasing hormone during the last days of pregnancy and the onset of maternal aggression.- need to consider context -territorial defence diff to defence of young
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Swaab (2009)- hormonal explanations may lead to determinism
Argues that gender identity is biologically determined perinatally. Thus, this leaves no room for free will in the formation of the belief as to what sex you are
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Allow for influence of culture?
The child can then take on the cultural norms of the gender with which they identify. Explanation not entirely reductionist as the norms around when aggression is accetable for a gender will interact with bio driven impulses in a complex holistic way
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Sex hormones may act on gene switches turning on or off a cascade of genes in neurons, that will shape male and female brains in different ways e.g. testosterone receptors in amygdala and hypothalamus- contribute to high physical aggression in men

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Matsuda et al (2012)- AO1

Card 3

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Perinatal exposure to androgens influences the expression and distribution of serotonin receptors, known for their role in inhibiting aggression

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

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Testorone increases the propensity toward aggression because of reduced activation of the neural circuitary of impulse control and self regulation

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

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Androgens also modulate serotonin agonist effects on aggression.

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