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  • Created by: XxzoexX
  • Created on: 09-03-15 20:27
what is variation?
the difference between members of the same species. variation is caused by inherited or environment factors.
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how many chromosome do all cells have except sex cells?
46 chromosome and sex cells have 23 chromosomes
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where are chromosomes found?
in the nucleus
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what are chromosomes?
long threads of DNA
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what do chromosomes carry?
genes that controls yours features
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what is a gene?
a section of DNA that carries information
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what is DNA?
the long molecule that makes up genes and chromosomes
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what is asexual?
only involves one parent. The process produces more organisms completely identical to itself. no joining of special sex cells and there is no variety in the off springs. common in smaller animals and plants and in bacteria.
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what is sexual reproduction?
way of passing information from parents to their off spring. involves joining of a male sex cell and a female sex cell. inherit genetic information from both parents.
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what is cloning plants?
gardeners can produce new plants by taking cuttings from older plants. many growers use a hormone rooting powder
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how do you take a cutting off a plant?
remove a small piece of the plan- often stem or part of leaf. if you grow it in the right conditions, new roots and shots will form
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what is cloning animals?
in embryo cloning,you give a cow a fertility hormone to make her produce lots of eggs, you then fertilise these eggs using the sperm from a really good bull.
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what is adult cell cloning?
when a new animal is still have to fuse the nucleus of one cell with the empty egg of another animal, then you have to place the embryo which results into the womb of a third animal
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what are the steps of an embryo transplant?
embryo is split up, embryo's are inserted into wombs of surrogate mothers and off springs are cones of each other
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what are the steps of adult cell cloning?
a nucleus from one species is combined with an empty ovum from another specie, they are combined by a mild electric shock. then a embryo is formed, the cloned embryo is implanted into the uterus of surrogate mother
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what are some advantages of adult cloning?
-useful animals can be cloned -could be used to save animal extinction -could be used to bring back species that have died out
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what are some disadvantages of adult cloning?
produces lots of individuals with identical genes -faulty gene could be passed on
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what is a clone?
genetically identical individuals
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what is genetic engineering?
a technology that has been used to change the genetic materials of cells. it involves removing a gene from one organism and putting it into another organism
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what are some advantages of genetic engineering?
-can be used to improve the growth rate of plants and animals -used to design plants that can survive in adverse weather conditions
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what are some disadvantages of genetic engineering?
-genes form genetically modified plants and animals can spread into the wildlife of the country side
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what is lamarck theory of evolution?
every animal evolved form primitive worms. changed passed on from one generation to another. variation in species are in response to the changes in their environment
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what is Darwin's theory of evolutions?
species gradually changed from one form to another by natural selection. Species are different because they have different genes due to mutation
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why was Darwin's theory only gradually accepted?
-religion had an important part in society -difficult to prove
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how many chromosome do all cells have except sex cells?


46 chromosome and sex cells have 23 chromosomes

Card 3


where are chromosomes found?


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Card 4


what are chromosomes?


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Card 5


what do chromosomes carry?


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