Organelles structure and function

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 30-04-16 20:11
Describe the structure of the nucleus
When stained shows darkened patches of chromatin. Surrounded by nuclear envelope which is made of 2 membranes with fluid filled between them. Nuclear pores go through the membrane and allow relatively large molecules through. Nucleolus inside nucleus
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What is the function of the nucleus?
Holds all genetic material. Chromatin consists of DNA + proteins. Has instructions for making proteins which regulate cell's activities. Chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes. Nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes which pass into cytoplasm.
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Describe the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum
ER consists of flattened membrane-bound sacs called cisternae. These are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane. Rough ER is studded with ribosomes, smooth is not.
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What is the function of rough ER?
To transport proteins that were made on the attached ribosomes. Some of the proteins will be secreted from the cell and some placed on cell surface membrane.
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What is the function of smooth ER?
Involved in making the lipids that the cell needs.
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Describe the structure of the golgi apparatus
A stack of membrane- bound flattened sacs.
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What is the function of the golgi apparatus?
To receive proteins from the ER and modify them. It may add sugar molecules to them and then packages them into vesicles to be transported to the cell surface membrane to be secreted.
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Describe the structure of mitochondria
Spherical or sausage-shaped. 2 membranes separated by a fluid-filled space. Inner membrane is highly folded to form cristae. Central part is known as the matrix.
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What is the function of mitochondria?
Produces most of the ATP that the cell needs during respiration.
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Describe the structure of chloroplasts
Only found in plant cells and some protoctists. 2 membranes separated by a fluid-filled space. Inner membrane is continuous with elaborate network of thylakoids.
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What is the function of chloroplasts?
They are the site of photosynthesis in plant cells.
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Describe the structure of lysosomes
Spherical sacs surrounded by a single membrane.
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What is the function of lysosomes?
Contain powerful digestive enzymes. Role is to break down materials.
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Describe the structure of ribosomes
Tiny organelles. Some free in the cytoplasm, some bound to ER. Each consists of 2 subunits.
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What is the function of ribosomes?
Site of protein synthesis in the cell. They act as an assembly line where mRNA from the nucleus is used to assemble proteins from amino acids.
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Describe the structure of centrioles
Small tubes of protein fibres (microtubules). Pair of them next to the nucleus in animal cells and in cells of some protoctists.
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What is the function of centrioles?
Take part in cell division. Form fibres, known as the spindle, which move chromosomes during nuclear division.
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What is the cytoskeleton?
A network of fibres made of protein.
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What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
To keep the cell's shape stable.
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What are microtubules?
Cylindrical fibres made of the protein tubulin.
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What can microtubules be used for?
To move a microorganism through a liquid or to waft a liquid past the cell.
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Describe the structure of flagella and cilia
Structurally the same. They are hair-like extensions. Each one is made up of a cylinder that contains 9 microtubules arranged in a circle. 2 microtubules are in a central bundle. Move using ATP.
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Describe the function of undulipodia/flagella
They are longer than cilia. The flagella form the tail of a sperm cell for example. Flagella usually occur in ones or twos in a cell.
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Describe the purpose of cilia in a cell
Use ATP energy to move. Cilia are short and often occur in large numbers in a cell.
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What are vesicles?
Membrane-bound sacs found in cells.
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What is the function of vesicles?
Used to carry many different substances around cells.
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What is a vacuole?
Filled with water and solutes so it pushes the cytoplasm against the wall.
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What do vacuoles do?
Maintain cell stability and make the cell turgid.
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Where can plant cell walls be found?
On the outside of the plant cell plasma membrane.
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Describe the structure of plant cell walls
Made of cellulose which forms a sieve-like network of strands that makes the wall strong.
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What is the purpose of plant cell walls?
To support the cell and support the whole plant.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the function of the nucleus?

Back

Holds all genetic material. Chromatin consists of DNA + proteins. Has instructions for making proteins which regulate cell's activities. Chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes. Nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes which pass into cytoplasm.

Card 3

Front

Describe the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of rough ER?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of smooth ER?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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