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different from others - 1) a priori 2) god has to exist, analytical and deductive
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the study of the nature, characteristics, and definition of something that exists
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Ontology for onto
studying the definition of God and proving God through this definition
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Book for Anselm
'Proslogian 2' first formulation
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definition of God
'that than which nothing greater can be conceived'
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Aim -
to prove the existence to the fool
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Anselm started with...
concept that is accepted by everyone even the fool has a concept
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reducing to absurdity
reductio as absurdum - god already exists and stupid to think otherwise
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Gaunilo - absurd...
cannot show existence by defining it into existence
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Gaunilo's example
perfect island, doesn't mean it exists
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Anselm's second book
prosologian 3
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Anselm's 2nd argument
can't compare god to an island, an island = contingent, god = necessary
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aim of 2nd argument
to show god is the greatest thing ever
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Descartes intro
proving God exists is showing the reason never to doubt him, maths can't be doubted
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Anselm bible quote
'the fool says in his heart there is no god' Proverbs 14v1
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descartes definition
'god is the supremely perfect being'
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supremely perfect...
possesses all perfections even existence
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existence is...
a predicate, can't think of a triangle without sides or a mountain without a valley
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Kant's first argument
the 'two-types' of statement argument
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kant's triangle
to reject the three sides is contradictory, but theres no problem with rejecting the whole thing
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apply triangle to god
if u accept goGod and then reject his necessary existence = contradiction, but if you reject the concept of God then no contradiction.
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kant first argument quote
“However the fact that you can define something in an analytical way doesn’t necessarily make it real”
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kants first argument example
May be true that ‘unicorns have one horn’, not true that they exist
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Kant first argument conclusion
Kant said that it is possible to separate God and his existence “it is quite possible to think of a being who doesn’t exist”
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Kant's second argument
Existence is NOT a predicate
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kant second argument quote
“you do not add anything to the description of an object by saying it is real and not imaginary”
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Kant’s Conclusion
if God’s necessary existence is an analytic statement, then it is a definition that tells us nothing about whether he actually exists. So the OA = pointless.
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Gottlob Frege
first order predicate (nature) vs second order predicate (concept) the argumetn uses second order
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Bertrand Russel
Anselm uses the word ‘exist’ incorrectly, syllogism - santa claus is a man, he must exist
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Norman Malcolm
If God is necessary he cannot be made to come into existence. For God not to exist becomes logically absurd., liked the 2nd one
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Gareth Moore
o God compared to equator – no-one claims that the equator doesn’t exist, but there isn’t a line drawn around the world!
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Main weakness
empirical senses
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the study of the nature, characteristics, and definition of something that exists

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Ontology for onto


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Book for Anselm


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definition of God


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