Nucleic acids

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  • Created by: 1zoe
  • Created on: 13-01-16 17:43
What does DNA stand for
Deoxyribo nucleic acid
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What does RNA stand for
Ribo nucleic acid
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Describe the structure of DNA
Double helix, ladder
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What's the function of DNA
Carries genetic information.
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What monomer makes up DNA and RNA
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What are the 3 parts that make up a nucleotide
Phosphate, pentose sugar, organic base
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Name the 5 nitrogen containing bases
Cytosine, thymine, uracil, adenine and guanine
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The pentose sugar and phosphate groups are joined by a ..... Reaction
Condensation to form a single nucleotide
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What's the name of the bond between nucleotides
Phosphodiester bond
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Describe the structure of RNA
It's a single relatively short polynucleotide chain
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What is the pentose sugar always present in RNA called
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What aware the organic bases in RNA
Uracil, adenine, guanine, cytosine
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Two functions of RNA
Transfer of genetic info from DNA to ribosomes and involved in protein synthesis
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Who worked out the structure of DNA
Watson and Crick in 1953
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Who took an X-ray of diffraction patterns of DNA
Rosalind Franklin
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What's the pentose sugar in DNA
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What are the organic bases in DNA
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How many polynucleotide chains make up DNA
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What type of bond attaches the 2 strands of DNA together
Hydrogen bonds
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What base is COMPLEMENTARY to adenine
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What base is COMPLEMENTARY to cytosine
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Are the quantities of adenine and thymine in DNA the same
Yes fast for every A there is one T
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Why is DNA a stable molecule
Phosphodiester backbone protects the more reactive bases in the double helix and hydrogen bonds between bases make it more stable especially a C-G rung as have 3 hydrogen bonds.
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How many hydrogen bonds in a A-T rung
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How many hydrogen bonds are in an C-G rung
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Why doesnt DNA easily mutate from generation to generation
It has a very stable structure
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How are the base pairings protected from chemical corruption
By bing on the inside of a helical Deoxyribose phosphate back bone
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Name the two main processes in cell division
Nuclear division and cytokinesis
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What is nuclear division
The process by which the nucleus divides.
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What are the two types of nuclear division
Mitosis and meiosis
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What is cytokinesis
Follows nuclear division ands when the whole cell divides
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Before the nucleus divides its DNA what must happen
It must be replicates so each cell has the same DNA
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What model of DNA replication is currently accepted
Semi conservative replication
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Do both strands of DNA act as templates in replication
Yes they both act as templates for the attachment of 'free' nucleotides
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What does the enzyme DNA helicase do
Breaks the hydrogen bonds linking the base pairs. Unzips the DNA
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Once the H bonds are broken in DNA what happens
The double helix unwinds and separates
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the Exposed polynucleotide strand acts as a ...
Template for free complementary nucleotides to bind by specific base pairin
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What enzyme carries out the condensation reaction of nucleotides
DNA polymerase
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How much of a new DNA strand Is original
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what does ATP stand for
Adenine tri phosphate
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ATP is a phosphorylated macromolecule
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What 3 apart sis ATP made up of
Adenine, ribose, phosphates
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How many phosphates are in ATP
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ATP+ H2O->
ADP+ Pi+ energy. Pi = inorganic phosphate
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How many phosphates in ADP
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The bonds between the phosphate groups are unstable and therefor
Have low activation energy and are broken easily
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What type of reactions is ATP + H2O
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What enzyme catalysers the reaction from ATP -> ADP
ATP Hydrolase
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Is the reaction from ATP->ADP reversible
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ADP + Pi ->ATP +H2O is a condensation reaction what's the enzyme
ATP Synthase
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The synthesis of ATP from ADP in plants is called
Photo phosphorylation
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The synthesis of ATP in respiation is called
Oxidative phosphorylation
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In plant and animal cells donnor molecules give phosphate to ADP this is ..
Substrates level phosphorylstion
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Why isn't ATP used as energy storage
Because the phosphate bonds are unstable
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Why is ATP better immediate energy than glucose
Smaller released of energy so more manageable and hydrolysis is a single reaction so immediate energy
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Where is ATP made
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Cells that need more energy have more....
Mitochondria for ATP synthesis
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What processes is ATP used in
Metabolic processes, movement, active transport, secretion
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What does RNA stand for


Ribo nucleic acid

Card 3


Describe the structure of DNA


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What's the function of DNA


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What monomer makes up DNA and RNA


Preview of the front of card 5
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