Muscles

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What is the function of the muscular system?
movement
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Muscle is a special type of tissue made up of fibres that ... ?
contract and relax
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What are the three different types of muscle?
voluntary, involuntary, cardiac
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What do voluntary muscles do?
move bones under your concious control
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When do voluntary muscles work?
when we choose to use them
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What are voluntary muscles attatched to?
bones
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Give an example of voluntary muscles
Biceps, Quadriceps etc.
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What do involuntary muscles do?
work without you consciously knowing or even being aware
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Where are involuntary muscles?
walls if internal organs - contract in waves
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Give and example of involuntary muscles working
food moving through the digestive system OR blood through the blood vessels
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Where are cardiac muscles found?
the heart, they form the walls of the heart chambers
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What do cardiac muscles do?
work non-stop, contracts to pump blood out of the heart and around the body
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What will fitness training do to the cardiac muscles?
strengthen them making the heart more efficient
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What is the proper name for you calf?
gastroCnemius
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Where are you triceps found?
back of your upper arm
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Where are your quadriceps?
front of upper leg
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Where are your hamstrings?
back of upper leg
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Where are your biceps found?
front of upper arm
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Where is your trapezius?
upper back, neck to across shoulders
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Where is your deltoid found?
top of shoulder
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Where is your gastrocnemuis?
back of lower leg
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Where are your gluteal muscles found?
buttock
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Where is your latissimus dorsi found?
side of back
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Where are your pectorals?
front of upper chest
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Where are your abdominals found?
front of torso, below upper chest
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What is adduction?
moving muscles towards the body - in-line with the body
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What is abduction?
moving muscles away from the body - not in-line with body
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What is flexion?
closing the angle at a joint
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What is extension?
opening the angle at a joint
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What is rotation?
circular motion of limbs
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What does your deltoid do?
abducts the arm at the shoulder
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What do your bieceps do?
flexion of the the arm at elbow
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What do your abdominals do?
flexion of trunk
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What do your quadriceps do?
extention of leg at the knee
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What do your pectorals do?
adducts the arm at the shoulder
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What does your latissimus dorsi do?
adducts upper arm at shoulder, rotates the humerous
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What does your trapezuis do?
rotates the scalps towards the spine
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What do your gluteals do?
extension of leg at hip
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What do your hamstrings do?
flexion of leg at the knee
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What do you gastrocnemuis do?
extension of ankle (plantar flexion of ankle), pointing toes
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What is muscle tone?
muscle fibres in a state of partial tension
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What can poor muscles tone lead to?
bad posture and slouching
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What is muscle hypertrophy?
increase in size of muscles
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What is muscle atrophy?
decrease in size of muscles
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What is an isometric contraction?
body is stationary, no movement
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What is an isotonic contraction?
movement is taking place
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How do muscles work?
antagonistic pairs - a muscle must in partnership with another muscle to allow movemnt to occcur
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What is the agonist?
muscle that contracts in movement
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What is the antagonist?
muscle that relaxes and lengthens in the movement
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What is the origin?
where the muscle starts
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What is the insertion?
where the muscle joins to the next bone
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What do ligaments do?
attach bone to bone
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What type of movement are fast twitch muscle fibres for?
fast, quick
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What are slow twitch muscle fibres for?
slow, endurance
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Are fast twitch muscle fibres large or small?
large
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How do fast twitch muscles fibres contract?
quickly and powerfully
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What colour are fast twitch muscle fibres?
white
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Why are fast twitch muscle fibres the colour they are?
they have a limited oxygen supply - anaerobic
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How fast do fast twitch muscle fibres tire?
quickly
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Are slow twitch muscle fibres large or small in size?
small
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How do slow twitch muscle fibres contract?
slowly with less force
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What colour are slow twitch muscle fibres?
(deep) red - have a good oxygen supply - aerobic
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How fast to slow twitch muscles fibres tire?
they work for long period of time without tiring
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What percentages of fast and slow twitch muscle fibres does the average person have?
60% slow, 40% fast
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Name 4 immediate effects of exercise on the muscular system
muscles start working harder, muscles produce heat, muscles tire and ache, anaerobic activities lactic acid is produced
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What are the effects of muscles starting to working harder during exercise (immediate)?
increase in energy demand, more O2 and glucose needed to continue contracting efficiently
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What are the effects of muscles producing heat (immediate)?
body warm up and eventually start to sweat
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Why do muscles start to tire and ache (immediate)?
lack of O2 and glucose - lactic acid building up
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What are the effects of lactic acid building up in the muscles (immediate)?
pain and cramp
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How does the circulatory system help the muscular system during activity?
makes heart beat faster, blood shunting to the muscles
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Name 4 long term effects of exercise on the muscles
muscular hypertrophy, increased strength, endurance, more capillaries around then
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What are the effects of increased muscular strength?
can complete more powerful actions
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What are the effects of increased muscular endurance?
muscles can withstand more prolonged exercise
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What does having more capillaries around the muscles mean?
more O2 can be delivereved to them and used by them
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What will help to develop muscular strength?
weigth training
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What will help to develop muscular endurance?
running, cycling, swimming (continuous/fartlek)
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What is injured if you get a strain?
muscles
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What is injured if you get a sprain?
joints
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What does RICE stand for?
rest, ice, compression, elevation
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What does rest (RICE) do?
so you don't make the injury any worse
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What does ice (RICE) do?
reduces blood flow to that area and prevents swelling
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What does compression (RICE) do?
reduces blood flow to that area and prevents swelling, provides support
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What does elevation (RICE) do?
reduces the blood flow to that area as the injured area is above heart
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Give and example of a repetitive strain injury
Golfer's/tennis elbow
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Muscle is a special type of tissue made up of fibres that ... ?

Back

contract and relax

Card 3

Front

What are the three different types of muscle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do voluntary muscles do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When do voluntary muscles work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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