Muscle ISA

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How do you calculate the standard deviation?
1-calculate mean 2- take away mean from each value 3- square these values 4-add them together 5-divide sum by n-1 (n is sample size) 6-sqaure root this number
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How do you calculate 95% confidence intervals?
1- Calculate your standard deviations 2- standard error= standard deviation/ square root of n 3- standard error x 2 (above and below mean)
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Explain the resting potential of a neuron
more positive ions on outside as soduim-potassium pump transports 3Na+ out of neuron for every 2 K+ moves in-requires ATP. K+ move out though potassium ion channel down concentration gradient
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What happens when a stimulus is detected by a receptor?
1-few sodium ion channels open 2-potential difference lowered 3- generator potential reaches thershold potential more channels open 4-influx of Na+ causing depolarisation 5-diffuse sideways along axon
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Describe the structure of a sarcomere and what happens to the structure when the mucle contracts?
I band- only actin, shortens during contraction. H zone- only myosin, shortens. A band- where actin and myosin overlap, stays the same length
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How does a muscle contract?
1- action potential depolarises sarcolemma>t-tubules>sarcoplasmic reticulum 2-releases Ca + sarcoplam 3-binds to troponin which pulls tropomyosin away 4-acitn-myosin cross bridge 5-Ca + activate ATPase 6-cross bridges break then reform
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Draw the steps for anaerobic respiration. Why isnt it as efficient as aerobic?
:
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What are the energy sources for fast twich muscle fibres?
anaerobic respiration and PCr stores: ADP+PCr---> ATP + Cr
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Why is the speed of an action potential fastest in a myelinated neuron?
Myelin sheath made from Schwann cells. Saltatory conduction- neurone's cytoplasm conduct enough electrical charge to depolarise next node of Ranvier so it jumps between them instead of having to travel full distance of axon
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Define stimulus. What are the 2 simple responses to stimulus?
A change in an organisms internal or external enviroment. 1-tactic:directional movement away=negative to=positive 2-kinetic: random movement in response to intentisty of stimulus
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What is a pacinian corpuscle?
receptor that responds to mechanical stimi acting on your skin. sensory nerve ending wrapped in lamella which is deformed by stimulus so deforms strech-mediated sodium channels and the Na+ channels open creating generator poteintial
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Draw the structure of a synapse
:
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What happens at a cholinergic synapse when an action potential reaches it?
1-voltage gated Ca + channels open into synaptic knob 2-Ca + cause vesicles to fuse with membrane 3-vesciles release neurotransmitter (ACh) into cleft by exocytosis 4-ACh binds to receptor- cholinergic 5-Na+ channels open cauing action potential
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How are neurtansmitters removed from the synaptic cleft and why?
broken down by enzymes then product reabosrbed by presynaptic neurone. prevent constant depolarisation therefore action potentials
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Whats special about a neuromuscular junction?
specialised cholinergic synapse between motor neuron and muscle cell. ACh binds to nicotinic cholinergic receptor. postsynaptic memebrane folds with AChE. action potential always triggers response in mucle cell-excitatory
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Explain summation
added effect of neurotransmitters released from neurones as sometimes not enough released to cause depolarisation. 1-spatial=2+ presynaptic release neurotransmitter to same neurone 2-temporal:2+ impulses in succession
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do you calculate 95% confidence intervals?

Back

1- Calculate your standard deviations 2- standard error= standard deviation/ square root of n 3- standard error x 2 (above and below mean)

Card 3

Front

Explain the resting potential of a neuron

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens when a stimulus is detected by a receptor?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the structure of a sarcomere and what happens to the structure when the mucle contracts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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