1. What do you need to prove Legal Causation?
- The consequence would not have happened 'but for' the defendant's conduct.
- The defendant did not intentionally cause the end result.
- The defendant's conduct was more than a 'minimal' cause of the consequence.
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2. What does the case of Woollin tell us?
- The end result must be a virtual certainty of the defendant's actions, and the defendant must foresee this for their to be oblique intention.
- The defendant must appreciate that the end result was a possibility.
- There is oblique intention when the defendant takes an unjustified risk.
3. Which case is an example of when the chain of causation was broken?
- Jordan (1956)
- Smith (1959)
- Cheshire (1991)
4. When is the chain of causation broken?
- When the defendant fails to act.
- When the act is so independent of the defendant's conduct and sufficiently serious enough.
- When the defendant did not have intention to cause the end result
5. When is an omission sufficient for the actus reus?
- When you feel morally obliged to.
- When there is a duty to act.
- When someone is in danger.