Milestones and Characteristics (Prenatal)

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What are the three stages of prenatal development and their onset and duration?
Germinal: 0 - 2 weeks; Embryonic: 3 - 7 weeks; Fetal: 8 - 38 weeks
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Describe the main characteristic that may occur if development is impeded per stage
Germinal: may result to prenatal death because of susceptibility to teratogens; Embryonic: morphological abnormalities may arise; Fetal: psychological and minor morphological abnormalities may arise
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How long does it take for a fetus to be implanted in the walls of the uterus?
3 hours
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What are the mass that arise from each germ layer?
Ectoderm: brain, spinal cord, nervous system, skin, nails, teeth, sensory organs; Mesoderm: skeletal structure, muscles, circulatory system, excretory system; Endoderm: umbilical cord
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What stage do the organs develop?
Embryonic stage
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Describe the characteristics of the first month of the embryonic stage
Fetus measures 1/4 - 1/2 inch in length, blood flows, heart beats 65 times per minute, sex cannot be determined yet
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The first month of the embryonic stage is said to be what in terms of rate of development and is how many times bigger than the zygote?
It is the most rapid developing; 10,000 times bigger than the zygote
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Describe the developing fetus at the end of the second month of the embryonic stage
Developing fetus is well-proportioned, less than an inch long, head is half the total length of body, weighs 1/13 oz.
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Describe the specific organs and/or functions that are developed at the end of the second month of the embryonic stage
Developed facial parts, hands, fingers and toes; brain coordinates functions of organs, stomach produces digestive juices, kidney remove uric acid from blood and skin responds to tactile stimulation
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What stage is considered the longest stage in terms of development?
Fetal stage
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What are the special characteristics attributed to the fetal stage?
Appearance of first bone cells, body grows 20 times in length
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Describe the developing fetus at the third month
Weighs 1oz., 3 inches in length, head is 1/3 of the total body length, and sex can be determined easily
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The typically developing fetus should be able to do these by the third month:
Breathe, urinate, move legs, feet and head, open and close mouth, swallow, ****, and make a fist
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What structures are developed at the 3rd month?
Fingernails, closed eyelids, vocal cords, lips, nose
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Describe the typically developing fetus at the 4th month
Weighs about 6oz., 8 - 10 inches in length, head is 1/4 of total body length, has the same proportion as that at birth
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What special characteristic is attributed to the 4th month of prenatal development
The developing fetus begins to kick due to increased muscular development
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Describe the developing fetus at 5th month
Weighs about 12oz., 1 foot in length, more active, personality is more apparent, has definite sleep-wake patterns, inadequate respiratory system for sustaining life
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What structures are developed at the 5th month?
Hair on head, and eyebrows
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Describe the typically developing fetus at the 6th month
Weighs about 1 1/14 lbs., 14 inches in length, has slower rate of growth, immature breathing apparatus, has slim chance of survival outside the womb; can open and close eyes
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Describe the developing fetus at the 7th month
Weighs about 3 - 5 lbs., 16 inches in length, has fully developed reflexes
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What can the typically developed fetus do at the 7th month of development?
Cry, breathe, swallow, **** thumb
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Describe the developing fetus at the 8th month
Weighs 5 - 7 lbs., 18 - 20 inches in length, does less movement due to weight,
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At the 9th month of prenatal development, the typically developed fetus should be:
About 7lbs., 20 inches in length, and ready to be born
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What is the main occupation of the fetus?
To survive
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What is the main characteristic and function of the normal development of oral-motor skill during the prenatal period?
Fetal swallowing for management of amniotic fluid volume
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By term, how many mL should the fetus be swallowing?
450mL/day
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What oral-motor skill is developed at 30 - 40 weeks of prenatal development?
More mature sucking
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When does sucking develop during the prenatal period?
27 - 28 weeks gestation
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When does fetal swallowing begin for the prenatal development?
11 weeks gestation (Weiss, 1988); 16 - 17 weeks gestation (Tuchman 1989)
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How does sensory integration occur or develop for the prenatal?
Sensory integration occurs as the CNS organizes sensory information and adaptive responses with increasing complexity
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When is the period of rapid development of sensory integration?
First 7 years of life (Ayres, 1979)
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When do the scores of children on standardized tests of sensory integration capabilities reflect almost that of a mature adult?
7 - 8 years old
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What sensory integration dominate early infancy?
Proximal senses
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Proximal senses continue to exert its influence in critical ways as these two systems gain ascendancy. What are these two systems?
Visual and auditory systems
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Aside from sensory integration processes, what other influences contribute to the development of the child's identity?
Family and cultures that shape occupational routines, interpretations given to the child's behavior by others, talents and abilities of the child, and chance events that carry significant and special meaning for the child (Parham, 2002)
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When is the onset of tactile stimulation? What is its function?
5 1/2 weeks after conception; reflexive avoidance reactions to a perioral stimulus
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What sensory integration is developed at 9 weeks gestational age?
Proprioception
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What occurs as a function of proprioception?
Approach response
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What vestibular reflex develops at about 9weeks post conception?
Moro reflex
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What reflexes continue to develop as a vestibular sensory integration in the utero?
Rooting, sucking, grasp, flexor withdrawal, Galant, neck righting, Moro reflex, positive supporting
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Describe the vestibular sensory integration developed by the time of birth
The newborn is well equipped with capacity to form a strong bond with any caregiver and to actively participate in the occupation of nursing
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Card 2

Front

Germinal: may result to prenatal death because of susceptibility to teratogens; Embryonic: morphological abnormalities may arise; Fetal: psychological and minor morphological abnormalities may arise

Back

Describe the main characteristic that may occur if development is impeded per stage

Card 3

Front

3 hours

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Ectoderm: brain, spinal cord, nervous system, skin, nails, teeth, sensory organs; Mesoderm: skeletal structure, muscles, circulatory system, excretory system; Endoderm: umbilical cord

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Embryonic stage

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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