Memory Psychologists

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Atkinson and Shriffin (1968)
Multi-store Memory Model
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Sperling (1960)
participants were shown a grid of letters and numbers for 50 milliseconds, they could not remember all, but one line 75% of the time
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Miller (1956)
Limited capacity of 7+- 2
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Peterson and Peterson (1959)
90% recall after 3 seconds, 2% after 18 showing when prevented from rehearsing, STM is poor
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Jacobs (1887)
9.3 items for numbers, 7.3 for letters
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Cowan (2001)
more likely to be 4 rather than 7
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Baddeley (1996a/b)
acoustically similar words get confused in the STM whereas semantically similar ones do in the LTM showing different encoding processes
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Squire et al (1992)
hippocampus is active when recalling LTM
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Scoville and Milner (1957)
HM could not created new LTM when his hippocampus was removed showing it is perhaps the gateway to LTM
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Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Levels of Processing Model
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Mandler (1967)
organising items causes deeper processing so improves recall
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Palmere et al (1983)
elaborating information causes deeper processing so improves recall
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Morris et al (1977)
the processing has to be relevant to what we are trying to remember to improve recall, this is transfer appropriate processing
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Baddeley (1986)
further divided this into the phonological store and the phonological articulatory, one to hold, one to loop sounds in the STM
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Logie (1995)
divided this into the scribe and cache
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Baddeley et al (1975)
VSSP is separate to the PL as it is hard to track light and describe angles – dual performance tasks
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Dolcos et al (2007)
fMRI shows different areas are active when performing tasks using different slave systems
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Shallice and Warrington (1970)
amnesiacs VSSP is better than their PL showing separate stores
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Eslinger and Domasio (1985)
the central executive is not one system, it is better conceptualised as many areas of the brain
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Brain and Kulik (1977)
people remember assassinations specific to their ethnicity, this supports the theory of it having to have personal relevance
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Neisser (1982)
repeated rehearsal means they are significant
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Conway et al (1994)
86% of UK participants remember details of Margaret Thatcher’s resignation, only 29% of other participants did
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Sheingold and Terry (1982)
good detail of births of siblings – real or someone told them
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Wright (1993)
Hillborough disaster,5 months after memories were vague and both personal and media bias influenced
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Williams (1994)
sexually assaulted women, 38% did not remember the abuse, 16% did not previously recall
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Loftus and Pickrell (1995)
lost in the mall, 20%
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Lyketsos (2001)
depression means low motivation and reduced awareness, meaning people remember less as they don’t pay attention to it
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Antikanen et al (2001)
6 months after treatment, memory in depressed patients was better
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Eich et al (1994)
sad and sad word pairs were easier to recall
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Hebb (1949)
(1949) engram is fragile, neurochemical and neuroanatomical, needs rehearsal
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Shallice (1967)
serial probe technique, memory better if present information quickly and the probe was early, i.e. memories could form after the probe and didn’t need to rewrite over others
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Lashley (1931)
brain damages rats - rats could no longer navigate mazes,
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Baddeley and Hitch (1977)
rugby players, remembered the amount of fixtures proportional to how many they had played, showing it is not dacay (all had the same time to forget) • Ecologically valid
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Underwood and Postman (1960)
word pairing, proactive interference, people could only remember the first stimulus word pair despite later learning a new one
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Abernethy (1940)
normal classroom and teacher in exams makes better results
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Goodwin et al (1969)
durnk people had better memories when drunk of prior drunk experiences
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Eysenck (1998)
cue dependent memory may be the main explanation for long term forgetting as situation affects the coding of memories
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Schacter (1987)
amnesiacs are better at implicit memory tasks, rather than explicit that require conscious thought
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Stickgold (2000)
tetris task, amnesiacs could learn new tasks (implicit) but could not explain how to do the task (explicit)
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Ryan et al (2000)
word pairs in the same voice helped normal participants, not amnesiacs, showing memory is not always implicit
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ssac and Myers (1999)
could retrieve memories but not consolidate them, meaning amnesiacs were good on recall but not recognition
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Gabrieli (1998)
CA1 hippocampus damage causes anterograde amnesia
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Reed and Squire (1998)
temporal lobe damage causes worsened affects
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Remondes and Schman (2004)
rats with damage to the hippocampus could learn new maxes but forgot them quickly, showing there is a problem with consolidation
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Hendrie (2001)
other cultures have the same frequency in other cultures but there is no such prevalence in the disease
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St Georges Hislop (2000)
½ all Alzheimers patients have no relatives with the disease
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Card 2


participants were shown a grid of letters and numbers for 50 milliseconds, they could not remember all, but one line 75% of the time


Sperling (1960)

Card 3


Limited capacity of 7+- 2


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


90% recall after 3 seconds, 2% after 18 showing when prevented from rehearsing, STM is poor


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


9.3 items for numbers, 7.3 for letters


Preview of the back of card 5
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