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  • Created on: 02-04-15 12:56
Which psychologists investigate duration of STM?
Peterson and Peterson
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Which psychologists investigate duration of LTM?
Bahrick et al.
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What was the procedure for peterson and petersons study? (STM)
24 Students, each tested over 8 trials. Participant given a consonant syllable and a 3-digit number, asked to recall the syllable after a retention interval of 3,6,9,12,15 or 18. Had to count back from the 3 digit number they were given.
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What were the findings of peterson and petersons study? (STM)
90% correct over 3 seconds. 20% correct after 9 seconds. 2% correct after 18 seconds.
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What was the procedure for Bahrick et al's study? (LTM)
400 people of various ages (17-74). Photo recognition test consisting of 50 photos, some from participants year book. A free-recall test where participants were asked to list all the names they could remember
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What were the findings of Bahrick et al's study? (LTM)
Within 15 years of graduation: 90% accurate in photo recognition, 60% accurate in free recall. After 48 years: 70% for photo recognition, 30% for free recall.
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Why did peterson and peterson's study lack ecological validity? (STM)
Because the stimulus material was artificial, trying to memorise consonant syllables does not truly reflect everyday memory activities. However we do remember fairly meaningless things e.g. phone numbers. Does have some relevance to everday life
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What is the main problem with peterson and peterson's study? (STM)
The findings may be explained by displacement rather than spontaneous decay. The counting of the numbers may have displaced the syllables. Reitman used auditory tones instead of numbers to prevent displacement and found that STM duration was longer.
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What is the main weakness of Bahrick et als study? (LTM)
The results may be due to rehearsal, some participants may have looked at yearbooks regularly. Rehearsal is acting as a extraneous variable. So the results may lack validity.
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Which psychologists investigated the capacity of memory?
Key study: MIiller. Second study: Jacobs
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What was the procedure of Miller's study? (capacity)
Made observations that everyday things come in sevens e.g. seven notes on the musical scale. Also reviwed several studys that have investigated the span of STM e.g. participants counted dots flashed on a screen or were tested on the recall of words
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What were the findings of Miller's study? (capacity)
When dots are flashed on a screen participants are accurate with seven dots but inaccurate with 15. Also observed that people can remember 5 words as well as they can 5 letters, by chunking (grouping sets of digits/letters into meaningful units)
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What was the procedure of Jacob's study? (capacity)
Tested digit span. Each participant listened to 4 digits and had to recall them in the correct order, if correct the digit number went up by 1, this continued until they couldnt recall the order correctly. The same activity was repeated with letters.
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What were the findings of Jacob's study? (capacity)
Mean span for digits 9.3 and for letters 7.3. Also observed that digit span increased with age 8 year olds could remember a mean of 6.6 digits where as 19 year olds could remember a mean of 8.6
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What research suggest that Miller may have overestimated the capacity of STM?
Cowan reviewed research on this topic and found that it is more likely to be 4 chunks. Supported by Vogue et al who found 4 items was about the limit for visual items. The lower end of Miller's range is more appropriate.
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What real world applications does Millers study have? (capacity)
To the UK postcode system. Baddeley used research on chunking to make recommendations about what combinations of numbers/letters are most easily remembered. Phone numbers and car licence plate also use chunking.
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What's the weakness of Jacob's study? (capacity)
That it's very old, conducted in 1887. He may not have adequately controlled the study because research was less formal, the interactions given to child and adults may have differed acting as an extraneous variable, may be why adults scored higher
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Which psychologists investigated encoding?
Key study, Baddeley. Second study, Brandimote et al.
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What was the procedure of Baddeleys study? (encoding)
4 groups. A: acoustically similar words. B: acoustically dissimilar C: Semantically similar D: semantically dissimilar. 5 words were read out, after a time interval they were shown 10 words and ask to select the correct 5 and place them in order
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What were the findings of Baddeleys study? (encoding)
When STM tested participants with acoustically similar words had lowest recall. When LTM tested (time interval of 20 minutes) the group with semantically dissimilar words had lowest recall
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Why must we be cautious about generalising the findings of Baddeleys study to different kinds of memory task? (encoding)
Because quite artificial stimuli was used. If people were processing meaningful information they might use semantic coding even for STM tasks, it only tells us a limited amount about encoding in STM/LTM
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What's a limitation of Baddeleys study on encoding?
The LTM interval wasn't very long term, only 20 minutes, not the same as remembering information for months/years. Possible that different kinds of encoding processes are involved when information is stored over months/years.
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What was the procedure for Brandimote et al's study? (encoding)
Showed participants six picture pairs. One of each pair was a component of the other, participants were asked to subtract the second picture from the first picture in each pair. In the retention interval some had an articulatory suppression task
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What were the findings of Brandimote et al's study? (encoding)
Participants performance was unaffected by the articulatory suppression task. Shows that the images were visually rather than verbally encoded so encoding in STM is not always acoustic.
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What studies support Brandimote et al's? (encoding)
Wickens et al. found that stn sometimes uses a semantic code. Frost's study showed that LTM was related to visual as well as semantic categories. Encoding is not simply acoustic or semantic but can vary according to circumstances.
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Who proposed the multi store model of memory?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
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What are the three memory stores according to the MSM?
Sensory memeory, Short term memory and Long term memory
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Explain attention as a process in the MSM
Attention: information first arrives at the SM, attention causes it to be transferred to the STM.
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Explain rehearsal as a process in the MSM
Rehearsal: Information in the STM can disappear through decay or displacement. Verbal rehearsal maintains the information, increasing this leads to transfer from STM to LTM. The more rehearsed the better remembered (maintenance rehearsal)
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What is the main criticism of the MSM
It's a very simplified model. STM can be further sub divided into visual and verbal stores. Research has shown that the LTM can also be subdivided into different kinds of memory including semantic, episodic and procedural memory.
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How does the case study of HM support the MSM?
His hippocampi were removed which led to an inability to transfer STM to LTM. HM was still able to remember things that occurred prior to the operation this shows a distinction between STM and LTM
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How does Glanzer and Cuntiz study support the MSM?
Through the serial position effect. Participants remembered the first words (primary effect) and last words (recency effect) of a list. Primary effect occurs because the words have transferred to LTM. Recency because the words are still in the STM.
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How do the participants used in much of the research for MSM limit the model?
Majority of participants 18-21 psychology students. 18-21 may have different memories to other age groups and students are likely to be more that averagely intelligent. Psychology students may have tried to guess the aim of the experiment
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Who proposed the work memory model?
Baddeley and Hitch
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What are the 4 features of the WMM?
Central executive, phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad and the episodic buffer
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Explain the central executive (WMM)
It monitors incoming data and allocates 'slave systems' to tasks. It has a very limited storage capacity.
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Explain the phonological loop (WMM)
Deal with auditory information. Subdivided into: Phonological store - Holds the words you hear, acts like an inner ear. Articulatory process - allows maintenance rehearsal, acts like an inner voice
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Explain the visuo-spatial sketchpad (VSS) (WMM)
Used for visual and spatial information e.g. counting how many windows your house has. Logie said the VSS is subdivided into: Visual cache: stores info about visual items (colour/form) Inner scribe: stores arrangement of objects in the visual field
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Explain the episodic buffer (WMM)
Added in 2000 by baddeley. Integrates information from CE, PL, VSS and long-term memory.
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What real world applications does the WMM have?
Concept of working memory has been useful in the diagnosis of mental illness'. Park et al reviewed a number of studies and concluded that problems with working memory were a key distinction between normal patients and patients with Schizophrenia.
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How do case studies of brain damaged patients support the WMM?
Shallice and Warrington studied patient KF. Whose working memory for visual stimuli but not verbal was intact - could recall letters/digits but not sounds. Suggests damaged phonological loop. May not be reliable as unique, traumatic experience.
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How does the word-length effect support the WMM?
It's harder to remember a list of long words than short words. Occurs because there's a finite space for rehearsal in the articulatory process (2 secs). Disappears if person is given an articulatory suppression task due to articulatory process
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Who are the psychologists who investigate EWT and misleading information?
Key Study AND second study: Loftus and Palmer. Third study: Braun et al.
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What was the procedure of Loftus and Palmers first study? (EWT/misleading info)
45 american college students shown film clips of traffic accidents. Asked: how fast were the cars travelling when they each other?'. 5 groups verbs were: hit, smashed, collided, bumped or contacted.
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What were the findings of Loftus and Palmers first study? (EWT/misleading info)
'smashed' - 40.8mph (highest). 'contacted' - 31.8mph (lowest). Supports the view that misleading information can have a significant effect on memory.
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Why did Loftus and Palmers study on EWT/misleading info lack ecological validity?
Used a film of a car accident, participants may not take the experiment as seriously. Supported by a study where participants witnessed a real life robbery and recall was accurate four months later regardless of misleading information
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What real world application does Loftus and Palmers study on EWT/misleading info have?
A review in 2003 found that mistaken eyewitness identification was the largest factor in convicting innocent people, the research was important in convincing people that EWT is unreliable and has led to changes in the reliance on EWT in court.
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Findings were supported in a further study by Loftus, expand on this strength... (EWT/misleading info)
Participants shown picture of stop or yield traffic signs and then asked questions that were either consistent or inconsistent. Found that final identification of the original photos was most accurate when questions had been consistent.
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What was the procedure of Loftus and Palmer's second study? (EWT/misleading info)
Followed on from the key study. 150 american students. Asked the same speed question as in key study, 3 groups: 'smashed' 'hit' and a control group with no question. A week later participants were asked if there was any broken glass.
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What were the findings of Loftus and Palmer's second study? (EWT/misleading info)
Those with the verb 'smashed' were more likely to remember broken glass (there was none). The responses for the 'hit' and control group were similar. Shows that post-event information affects initial storage.
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Which psychologists investigated the effect of anxiety on EWT?
Key study: Johnson and Scott. Second study: Christiansen and Hubinette
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What was the procedure of Johnson and Scott's study? (EWT/anxiety)
In a waiting room participants heard an argument in an adjoining room. Condition 1: a man runs through a room carrying a pen covered in grease (low anxiety). Condition 2: The man runs through carrying a knife covered in blood (high).
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What were the findings of Johnson and Scott's study? (EWT/anxiety)
Participants were asked to identify the man from a set of photographs. Mean accuracy was 49% in the pen condition. 33% in the knife condition. Shows high anxiety reduces accuracy of face recognition. Anxiety may focus attention on central feature.
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What research supports the weapons focus effect and so Johnson and Scott's findings? (EWT/anxiety)
Loftus et al used eye-tracking to record eye movements and found that eye witnesses did look more at the weapon than the criminals face. Shows that raise anxiety may reduce accuracy of info)
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What evidence challenges the view that anxiety reduces accuracy of EWT?
Rinolo et al considered the EWT of survivors of titanic, their reports were accuracy regardless of anxiety. 75% of survivors said the ship broke in two, accurate. Anxiety doesn't necessarily mean inaccurate recall
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What was the procedure of Christian and Hubinette's study (EWT/anxiety)
Interviews with 58 eyewitnesses of Swedish bank robberies. Witnesses either victims (bank teller) or bystanders (customer). Interviews were conducted about 4-15 months after the robberies
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What were the findings of Christian and Hubinette's study? (EWT/anxiety)
All witness reports consistent with previous reports to police. Better than 75% accurate recall for all witnesses. Victims had best recall. Self-rated emotional anxiety was not related to good memory. Shows that anxiety does not affect recall.
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How was Christian and Hubinette's study flawed? (EWT/anxiety)
The information on emotional anxiety could be unreliable because it was based on self-report. The findings may no be true for non-violent crimes. Halford et al found that victims of violent crimes were more accurate. Challenges the generalisability.
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Who investigated the effect of age on EWT?
Key study: Yarmey. Second study: Parker and Carranza
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What was the procedure of Yarmey's study? (EWT/age)
Various public places. A young woman stopped 651 adults (3 age groups, young adults, middle aged and older), spoke to them for 15 seconds. Two minutes later the adults were unexpectedly asked to recall the physical characteristics of the young woman.
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What were the findings of Yarmey's study? (EWT/age)
Recall best in young adults (18-29), worst in older adults (45-65). Young and middle aged (45-65) were more confident about their recall. There were correlations between confidence and accuracy of recall)
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The findings of Yarmey's study may not be generalisable explain why (EWT/age)
Because the 'victim' was a young woman and so there may be 'own age bias'. Antasi and Rhodes found that each age group was most accurate when identifying photographs of people from their own age group. Might explain why young adults did best.
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How may have extraneous variables effected Yarmey's findings? (EWT/age)
Confidence is an extraneous variable. The reason younger participants were more accurate could be because they were more confident. They may just be more willing to take a chance and say whatever was in their mind. Results may be due to confidence
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What was the procedure of Parker and Carranza's study? (EWT/age)
48 primary students, 48 college students shown a slide sequence of a mock crime. Followed by a target-present or target-absent photo identification with a no-choice option, central and peripheral questions related to the crime and a 2nd photo identi
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What were the findings of Parker and Carranza's study? (EWT/age)
Child witnesses had a higher rate of making selections. Supported in the questioning task where adults made more 'dont know' choices. Child witnesses less accurate when the target was absent but no difference in age groups when the target was present
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Parker and Carranzas findings have been supported by other research studies expand on this point (EWT/age)
Goodman and Reed downs that children were not less accurate than older participants but were more suggestible (more likely to accept suggestions made by others). This means it is especially important to avoid misleading info when questioning children
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Who developed the cognitive interview?
Fisher and Gieselman
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What are the four stages of the cognitive interview?
Report everything (even if irrelevant), Mental reinstatement of context (imagine environment and people from original incident), changing the order (events recalled in a changed order) and changing the perspective.
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What do report everything and mental reinstatement of context in the cognitive interview aim to do?
Increase consistency between the actual event and the recreated situation, should lead to an increased likeliness that the witness will recall more details and be more accurate
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What do changing the order and changing the perspective aim to do in the cognitive interview?
Vary the route through the memory in order to increase accuracy of recall - removes the effects of 'scripts'
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Why may the CI be particularly effective with older witnesses?
Older witnesses are overcautious about reporting what they saw, Mello and riser found greater improvement using the CI with older rather than younger participants. CI should be prioritised with older witnesses.
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Why are police reluctant to use the CI?
Because it takes more time than a standard interview. Found that police officers prefer to use strategies that limit the amount of info collected. The CI places even greater demands on the interviewer and training is often inadequate.
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Why are there problems with doing research into the effectiveness of the CI?
Because many different versions of the CI are used, the thames valley force dont include 'changing perspective' and other forces just use report everything and reinstatement. Makes it difficult to demonstrate effectiveness.
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What are the five strategies for memory improvement?
Method of loci, Mind maps, Chunking, Acronyms and Rhymes
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Explain how the method of loci works
Learner associates material to be learned with different locations (e.g. places in their house/familiar routes). The learner mentally retraces their steps to recall the items.
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Explain how mind maps work
The main topic is placed in the centre and then branching links are made producing a unique visual appearance. Imposes organisation of facts to be remembered. Distinctiveness (e.g. colours) aids recall.
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Explain how chunking works
Capacity of memory is increased by grouping items for example postcodes/phone numbers
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Expain how rhymes work
Encoding info with a tune enhances recall. Thinking of the tune brings words into memory. E.g. tune of twinkle twinkle little star used to remember the letters of the alphabet
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Memory strategies are effective in studies of real-world application expand on this evaluation point
Down syndrome children who received training in memory improvement techniques had significantly improved memory skills compared with a control group.
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What is the main limitation of research into strategies for memory improvement?
Because the studies are often conducted in lab conditions. Slavin found that memory techniques that work in lab conditions dont work in 'real' contexts e.g. in speaking foreign languages better. Therefore the results may not apply to everyday life.
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Which psychologists investigate duration of LTM?


Bahrick et al.

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What was the procedure for peterson and petersons study? (STM)


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What were the findings of peterson and petersons study? (STM)


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What was the procedure for Bahrick et al's study? (LTM)


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