Memory

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What is the duration, capacity and encoding of the STM?
Measured in seconds and minuets, 7+/-2 items, acoustic or visual
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What is the duration, capacity and encoding of the LTM?
Measured in hours days and years, Unlimited, Semantic (meaning)
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Who was the MSM first described by?
Atkinson and Shifferin
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Name the parts of the MSM...
Environmental stimuli - Sensory memory - STM - LTM
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Outline 2 limitations and 2 strengths of the MSM...
L - Most assumptions are incorrect or partially correct & It oversimplifies memory structures and processes S Strong evidence of 3 different stores & Has clear predictions about memory, so psychologists can conduct studies to test it
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Who was the WMM first described by?
Baddley and Hitch
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Name the parts of the WMM...
Centeral executive, episodic buffer, visuo-spaital sketch pad and phonological loop
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2 Strengths and 2 weaknesses of the WMM...
S There is lots of supporting evidence for this model & Offers a better account than the STM component of the MSM L Not clear on what the ceneral executives funtion is & Can't make before & after comparissons
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What are 2 factors that influence accuracy?
Anxiety and age of wittness
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Evaluate anxiety eye wittness testimony...
Contadiction, meta-analysis, Loftus et al traked eye movements to support weapon focus effect
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Describe anxiety eye wittness testimony...
Deffenbacher et al meta-analysis showed anxiety reduced accuracy of EWT, Christianson & Hubinette - anxiety increased in real life bank robberies & Weapon focus effect Johnson & Scott
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Evaluate ages of wittness...
Own-age bias - Anastasi and Rhodes & Due to differential experience
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What impaires your attention?
Alcohol
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Describe ages of wittness...
Children make more errors - Parker and Carranza, Younger Ps more confident but no age differences -Yarmey & Older less accurate when delay was one week
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Describe Loftus and Palmers study into eye wittness testimony...
45 students shown 7 different videos of traffic accidents, Given a questionare & 1 critical question
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What was the critical question in the questionare in Loftus and Palmers study?
'How fast were the cars going when they hit eachother' One group were given this question, others were given the same but with smashed, collided, bumped and contacted instead
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What did Loftus and Palmer find?
They found that those who had 'contacted' gave the lowest speed esstimate and those who had 'smashed' gave the highest
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What are the 4 distinct components of the cognitive interview?
Report everything, mental reinstatement of original context, changing the order and changing the perspective
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What did Kohnken et al find?
A meta-analysis of 53 studies found that on average there was an increase of 34% of the correct info given in a CI than a standard interview
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What is a problem with the cognitive interview?
That it requires more time than is offten available
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Name some strategies for memory improvement...
verbal - acronyms and rhymes and visual - keyword method and mind maps
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What kind of people find verbal mnemonics better?
Students - effective for children with learning difficulties
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What are some limitations and applications?
Limitations: that most research was done in lab conditions Applications: Mnemonics used to overcome STM deficits in down syndrom children
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What was Loftus and Palmers second experiment?
New set of participants, one group shown 'stop' sign, other 'yield', given a set of questions, half of each group had the Q 'did another car pass by the stop sign' and other group 'yield' sign
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What were the results?
shown a pair of slides, identify which slides were in original sequence, 75% who had consitant Q picked right slide, 41% misleading chose wrong slide
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Card 2

Front

What is the duration, capacity and encoding of the LTM?

Back

Measured in hours days and years, Unlimited, Semantic (meaning)

Card 3

Front

Who was the MSM first described by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name the parts of the MSM...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline 2 limitations and 2 strengths of the MSM...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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