Memory

Coding supporting study
Baddeley, acoustic and semantic
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Capacity supporting study
Jacob and Jospeh, digit span and Miller's magic no.7+- 2 = STM & LTM = unlimited
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Duration supporting study
Peterson and Peterson, trigrams 3-18 seconds, Bahrick's year book study, STM = 18-30 secs and LTM= unlimited
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Multi store model of memory
Atkinson and Schifrin
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MSM support for separate STM and LTM
Glazner and Cuntiz, primary and recency affect, given 20 words one at a time and then asked to recall them, commonly recalled ones at the beginning of list (LTM) and at the end (STM)
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MSM criticism lots of stores in STM
Shallice and Warrington, patient KF could recall digits much better when read then read too, different auditory and visual stores in STM
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MSM criticism
Schachster, ovesimplified and reductionism present, 3 types of LTM, determinism = flashbulb memories don't go through STM to LTM
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MSM support for separate STM and LTM
Patient HM, can't remember personal information (LTM impaired) but STM intact, supports that there are two separate stores
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Types of LTM
Tulving said that the MSM was far too simplistic and deterministic and proposed that there were in fact 3 types of LTM
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Episodic LTM
Stores personal events, including memories of people and objects = like a diary, time stamped and we have to make conscious effort to recall, e.g.: birthday or your address
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Semantic LTM
Our knowledge of the world, resembling the notion of an encylopedia, not time stamped and are less personal memories, for example, there are 100cm in a meter
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Procedural LTM
the knowledge of how to do stuff, learned tasks and facts, not time stamped and can be recalled without conscious effort, hard to explain because the memory associated with the task comes so naturally to us, for example riding your bike/ driving a ca
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Types of LTM memory support, case study
Clive Waering, lived in a time span of 20 secs, had amnesia causing his episodic memory to be severely impaired, could remember how to play the piano but couldn't remember his children
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Types of LTM memory support, Brian scanning
Neuro imaging scans show that the semantic memory is found in the LEFT prefrontal lobe and episodic in the RIGHT prefrontal lobe
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Types of LTM memory support, real life application
Allows psychologists to realise that there are different types of LTM, target certain types of LTM to benefit ppl's lives, for example old people with mild cognitive impairment could improve their episodic memories
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Types of LTM memory criticism
Cohen and Squire, three types of memory = deterministic as they suggests that episodic and semantic are both stored in the same place, pre frontal lobe = declarative memory, may e more of less types of LTM = reductionistic
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WMM
Baddeley and Hitch, explanation of how the STM is organised and how it functions
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The Central Executive 'The Boss'
Monitors incoming information, and designates it to the separate slave systems
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Phonological loop
Deals with auditory info, subdivided into the phonological stores = stores words we hear and the articulatory process = allows maintenance rehearsal to take place
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Visuo Spatial Sketchpad
Deals with visual and spatial information, subdivided into the Visuo cache = stores visual info and the inner scribe = stores the arrangement of objects in a visual field
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WMM criticism, is Psychology a science?
CE a largely theoretical concept that lacks experimental support = lacks empirical evidence = less scientific
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WMM, support Dual task
Baddeley, asked ptps to track a spot of light whilst also tracing the letter H (visual task) or compelling a verbal task, more difficult to do two visual task than the verbal and visual = same slave system = support for diff. auditory & visual system
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WMM, support brain scans
Paulesu et al, used PET scans and showed that diff. areas of the brian were activated when undertaking diff, task, for example Broca's era = rehearsing words and suprumarginal gyrus =auditory info
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WMM support case study
Shallice and Warrington, patient KF could recall digits much better when read then read too, different auditory and visual stores in STM
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WMM support, lack of clarity for the Central executive
most important part of WMM, but least known about = not fully explained
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WMM support for Central executive
Alzheimer's disease, low CE functioning as disease progressed, Baddeley did dual taks on young/old/Alzheimers = all sim. when performing V or V tasks, Alzheimers impaired when trying to do both = problem of CE functioning, allocating task to slave
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Interference Forgetting
This forgetting occurs when we can't get access to memories, because tow pieces of info conflict, retroactive and proactive
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Retroactive support
Underwood and Postman, two groups, A = learn asked to learn to groups of words, B= only one, both then asked to recall group one words, A found it more difficult than B as new info conflicting old info = support for retroactive
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Proactive support
Keppel and Underwood, recall consonant trigrams and then count back in three from various intervals, forgetting increased as interval increased, support as early consonants had entered the LTM causing interference to take place with new Trigrams
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Retroactive support
Baddeley and Hitch, rugby players
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interference criticism
Research does not investigate whether info completely disappears or if it can be recovered, Ceraso showed that ptps tested after 24hrs = good recovery of info still = efforts of interference are merely temporary
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Retrieval failure, context and state dependant
Forgetting according to this theory is due to the lack of cues, we learn from encoding info with internal and external cues, help us to recall at a later date
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Context dependant support
Godden and Baddeley, deep sea divers, 18 divers from Scotland asked to learn 36 words
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State dependant support
Godwin, 48 males had one day of training and one day of testing
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Factors effecting EWT
Misleading Questions = an EW is given incorrect info after an event, or a leading question = due to the way Q is phrased gives a certain type of answer
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Why do leading Q's effect EWT?
= response bias, doesn't have affect on memory but influences the kind of answer given OR substitution explanation = wording of Q dies affect EW memory, interferes with original one, retroactive
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Jacob and Jospeh, digit span and Miller's magic no.7+- 2 = STM & LTM = unlimited

Back

Capacity supporting study

Card 3

Front

Peterson and Peterson, trigrams 3-18 seconds, Bahrick's year book study, STM = 18-30 secs and LTM= unlimited

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Atkinson and Schifrin

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Glazner and Cuntiz, primary and recency affect, given 20 words one at a time and then asked to recall them, commonly recalled ones at the beginning of list (LTM) and at the end (STM)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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