Memory

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What is capacity?
A measure of how much can be held in memory e.g STM=7+-2 items and LTM=potentially unlimited
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What is coding?
The way information is changed so that memory is stored. It can be stored as visual codes (images), acoustic codes (sound) or semantic codes (meaning).
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What is duration?
How long the memory lasts before it is no longer available e.g. STM=short duration and LTM=potentially lasts forever.
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What is STM?
Memory for immediate events. Measured in seconds and minutes. The last for a short amount of time and disappear unless rehearsed. It has a limited capacity and tends to be coded acoustically.
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What is LTM?
Memory for events that happened in the past. This lasts from 2 minutes-100 years. It has potentially unlimited capacity and duration and tends to be coded semantically.
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What is the magic number 7+-2 and who researched it?
It is the idea that individuals can remember 7+-2 items so 5-9 items and it was researched by miller.
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Outline the process of the MSM
Information is passed into the sensory memory via environmental factors, it then enters the STM via attention. The information is then passed to the LTM via rehearsal and can be passed to the STM through retrieval,
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What is the central executive?
An attentional process to monitor incoming data from the senses and LTM. It determines how the slave systems are allocated tasks and has very limited capacity (can't store things and can't attend to to many things at once).
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What is the phonological loop?
The slave system which deals with auditory information and preserves its order. Subdivided into the phonological store (inner ear) and the articulatory process (inner voice).
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What is the visuo-spatial sketchpad?
The slave system responsible for visual and/or spatial information. Subdivided into the visual ache (colour and form (visual)). and the Inner scribe (spatial relationships between objects).
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What is the episodic buffer?
An extra storage system used to hold information relating to both visual and acoustic information. It integrates info from oher stores and sends it to LTM. It has limited capacity.
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Episodic memory
Memories of an even that has happened in your life e.g. first day at uni. Concerned with personal experiences.
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Semantic memory
Memories for general knowledge of the world e.g. Paris is the capital of France.
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Procedural memory
Memories of a skill you have learned e.g. riding a bike. They are implicit and can be performed with little awareness of the steps needed to carry it out.
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Proactive interference
Past learning interferes with attempts to learn new knowledge.
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Retroactive interference
Current attempts to learn something interferes with past learning.
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Cues
Serve as a reminder either by forming a meaningful link to the items to be remembered or could be environmental (a room) or could be related to mental state (drunk).
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Retrieval failure
Forgetting due to the absence of cues. The memory cannot be retrieved - it is available but not accessible.
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Eyewitness testimony
The evidence provided in court by a witness, with a view to identifying the perpetrator of the crime. The accuracy may be affected during initial encoding, subsequent storage and eventful retrieval.
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Leading questions
A question that suggests to the witness what answer is desired or leads the witness to desired answer.
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Misleading information
Supplying the witness with information that may lead their memory of the crime to be altered and so reducing accuracy of recall.
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Post-event discussion
A conversation between co-witnesses or interviewer and witness after a crime has occurred. Details discussed may contaminate a witness' memories of the event.
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Anxiety
A nervous emotional state where we fear something unpleasant is about to occur. Physiological arousal such as increased heart rate or rapid breathing are experienced.
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Weapon effect/focus
The anxiety experienced when the presence of a weapon distracts attention from other features of the event. This reduces the accuracy of identification of the perpetrator.
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Cognitive interview
Interview technique that encourages witnesses to recreate the original context of the crime in an attempt to increase accessibility of stored information. Multiple retrieval strategies are used to access memories.
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What are the 4 steps of cognitive interview?
Mental reinstatement of original context, Report everything, Change order, Chance perspective.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is coding?

Back

The way information is changed so that memory is stored. It can be stored as visual codes (images), acoustic codes (sound) or semantic codes (meaning).

Card 3

Front

What is duration?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is STM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is LTM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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